Astrology, Horoscope, Planets, Dominant planets, Natal Chart
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René Girard: Astrology and Horoscope

Born:December 25, 1923, 12:30 PM
In:Avignon (84) (France)
Sun: 2°42' CapricornAS: 27°47' Aries
Moon:27°49' CancerMC: 14°06' Capricorn
Dominants: Capricorn, Scorpio, Cancer
Saturn, Moon, Pluto
Houses 7, 10, 4 / Water, Earth / Cardinal
Chinese Astrology: Water Pig
Numerology: Birthpath 7
Popularity: 5,661 clicks, 5,988th man, 9,898th celebrity

Celebrities born the same day: Helena Christensen, Carlos Castaneda, Ingrid Betancourt, Humphrey Bogart, Dido (singer), Annie Lennox, Carole Rousseau, Tuomas Holopainen, Sissy Spacek, Louise Bourgeois, Noël Mamère, Jillie Mack... List of all the celebrities born on December 25.

Celebrities having the same aspect Mars trine Uranus (orb 0°17'): Brad Pitt, Napoleon I, Gerard Butler, Ingrid Chauvin, Carmen Electra, Jennifer Garner, Michael Fassbender, Lance Armstrong, Jenna Elfman, Anna Nicole Smith, Ingrid Betancourt, Eva Braun... Find all the celebrities having this aspect in the database.

Celebrities having the same aspect Moon opposite Venus (orb 1°10'): Al Pacino, Demi Moore, Robin Williams, Tobey Maguire, Alanis Morissette, Liam Neeson, Guillaume Depardieu, Lil Romeo, Eric Clapton, Gillian Anderson, Jeremy Renner, Bernadette Soubirous... Find all the celebrities having this aspect in the database.

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Horoscope and chart of René Girard (Placidus system)

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Signs: Aries
 
"I am"
March 21 - April 20

1st Fire sign - 1st Cardinal sign (spring equinox) - Masculine

In analogy with Mars, his ruler, and the 1st House

Aries governs the head.

His colour is red, his stone is the heliotrope, his day is Tuesday, and his professions are businessman, policeman, sportsman, surgeon...

If your sign is Aries or your Ascendant is Aries: you are courageous, frank, enthusiastic, dynamic, fast, bold, expansive, warm, impulsive, adventurous, intrepid, warlike, competitive, but also naive, domineering, self-centred, impatient, rash, thoughtless, blundering, childish, quick-tempered, daring or primitive.

Some traditional associations with Aries: Countries: England, France, Germany, Denmark. Cities: Marseille, Florence, Naples, Birmingham, Wroclaw, Leicester, Capua, Verona. Animals: Rams and sheeps. Food: Leeks, hops, onions, shallots, spices. Herbs and aromatics: mustard, capers, Cayenne pepper, chilli peppers. Flowers and plants: thistles, mint, bryonies, honeysuckles. Trees: hawthorns, thorny trees and bushes. Stones, Metals and Salts: diamonds, iron, potassium phosphate.

Signs: Taurus
 
"I have"
April 21 - May 20

1st Earth sign - 1st Fixed sign - Feminine

In analogy with Venus, his ruler, and the 2nd House

Taurus governs the neck and the throat.

Her colour is green or brown, her stone is the emerald, her day is Friday, her professions are cook, artist, estate agent, banker, singer...

If your sign is Taurus or your Ascendant is Taurus: you are faithful, constant, sturdy, patient, tough, persevering, strong, focused, sensual, stable, concrete, realistic, steady, loyal, robust, constructive, tenacious. You need security, but you are also stubborn, rigid, possessive, spiteful, materialistic, fixed or slow.

Some traditional associations with Taurus: Countries: Switzerland, Greek islands, Ireland, Cyprus, Iran. Cities: Dublin, Palermo, Parma, Luzern, Mantua, Leipzig, Saint Louis, Ischia, Capri. Animals: bovines. Food: apples, pears, berries, corn and other cereals, grapes, artichokes, asparagus, beans. Herbs and aromatics: sorrels, spearmint, cloves. Flowers and plants: poppies, roses, digitales, violets, primroses, aquilegia, daisies. Trees: apple trees, pear trees, fig-trees, cypresses, ash trees. Stones, Metals and Salts: copper, calcium and potassium sulphate, emeralds.

Signs: Gemini
 
"I think"
May 21 - June 21

1st Air sign - 1st Mutable sign - Masculine

In analogy with Mercury, his ruler, and the 3rd House

Gemini governs the arms, the lungs and the thorax.

His colour is green or silver, his stone is the crystal, his day is Wednesday, his professions are journalist, lawyer, presenter, dancer, salesman, travel agent, teacher...

If your sign is Gemini or if your Ascendant is Gemini: you are expressive, lively, adaptable, quick-witted, humorous, sparkling, playful, sociable, clever, curious, whimsical, independent, polyvalent, brainy, flexible, ingenious, imaginative, charming, fanciful but also capricious, scattered, moody, shallow, inquisitive, opportunistic, unconcerned, selfish, fragile, ironical or changeable.

Some traditional associations with Gemini: Countries: Belgium, Wales, United-States, Lower Egypt, Sardinia, Armenia. Cities: London, Plymouth, Cardiff, Melbourne, San Francisco, Nuremberg, Bruges, Versailles. Animals: monkeys, butterflies, parrots, budgerigars. Food: dried fruits, chestnuts, ground-level vegetables: peas, broad beans, etc. Herbs and aromatics: aniseed, marjoram, lemon balm, cumin. Flowers and plants: lilies of the valley, lavenders, myrtle, ferns, Venus-hair-ferns, bittersweets. Trees: nut trees such as chestnut trees. Stones, Metals and Salts: agates, mercury, silicas and potashes.

Signs: Cancer
 
"I feel"
June 22 - July 22

1st Water sign - 2nd Cardinal sign (summer solstice) - Feminine

In analogy with the Moon, her ruler, and the 4th House

Cancer governs the stomach and the breast.

Her colour is white or black, her stone is the moonstone, her day is Monday, her professions are catering, the hotel trade, property, antique dealer, archaeologist...

If your sign is Cancer or your Ascendant is Cancer: you are emotional, sentimental, peaceful, imaginative, sensitive, faithful, resistant, protective, vulnerable, generous, romantic, nostalgic, tender, poetic-minded, motherly or fatherly, dreamy, indolent, greedy, devoted but also timorous, unrealistic, evasive, passive, anxious, dependent, stubborn, moody, passive, lazy, touchy, stay-at-home or inaccessible.

Some traditional associations with Cancer: Countries: Holland, Scotland, North and West Africa, New-Zealand, Paraguay, Algeria. Cities: Amsterdam, Manchester, Tokyo, New York, Istanbul, Stockholm, Milan, Venice, Genoa, Cadix, Alger, Tunis, Bern, Magdeburg. Animals: crabs, animals with shells. Food: milk, fishes, watery fruits and vegetables, turnips, white and red cabbages. Herbs and aromatics: tarragon, verbena, saxifrage. Flowers and plants: geraniums, white roses and white flowers in general, water lilies, morning glory, bear's breeches, and lilies. Trees: all trees full of sap. Stones, Metals and Salts: pearls, silver, lime and calcium phosphate.

Signs: Leo
 
"I love"
July 23 - August 22

2nd Fire sign - 2nd Fixed sign - Masculine

In analogy with the Sun, his ruler, and the 5th House

Leo governs the heart and the spine, and the eyes, according to some authors.

His colour is gold or orange, his stone is the diamond, his day is Sunday, his professions are actor, manager, jeweller, fashion and arts, and action (e.g. fireman)...

If your sign is Leo or your Ascendant is Leo: you are proud, determined, strong-willed, loyal, solemn, generous, ambitious, courageous, heroic, conquering, creative, confident, seductive, happy, daring, fiery, majestic, honest, magnanimous, charismatic, responsible, noble, dramatic but also domineering, vain, susceptible, bossy, stubborn, intolerant, self-centred, violent, quick-tempered, nonchalant.

Some traditional associations with Leo: Countries: Italy, Romania, Sicily, Czechoslovakia, Iraq, Lebanon, Southern France. Cities: Rome, Prague, Bombay, Madrid, Philadelphia, Chicago, Los Angeles, Bath, Bristol, Portsmouth, Syracuse, Damas. Animals: lions and felines in general. Food: meat and especially red meat, rice, honey, cereals, grapes, iron-rich vegetables: watercress, spinach etc. Herbs and aromatics: saffron, mint, rosemary, common rue (Ruta graveolens). Flowers and plants: marigolds, sunflowers, celandines, passion flowers. Trees: palm trees, laurel, walnuts, olive trees, lemon and orange trees. Stones, Metals and Salts: gold, rubies, magnesium and sodium phosphate.

Signs: Virgo
 
"I serve"
August 23 - September 22

2nd Earth sign - 2nd Mutable sign - Feminine

In analogy with Mercury, her ruler, and the 6th house

Virgo governs the intestine.

Her colour is green or yellow, her stone is the agate, her day is Wednesday, her professions are accountant, secretary, writer, computer scientist, nurse, doctor...

If your sign is Virgo or your Ascendant is Virgo: you are brainy, perspicacious, attentive to detail and numbers, analytical, serious, competent, scrupulous, sensible, modest, logical, tidy, well-organized, clean, hard-working, provident, honest, faithful, reserved, shy, helpful, a perfectionist, but also narrow-minded, calculating, irritating, petty, anxious, cold, repressed or caustic.

Some traditional associations with Virgo: Countries: Brazil, Greece, Turkey, West Indies, United-States (the same as Gemini), Yugoslavia, Crete, Mesopotamia, Lower Silesia, State of Virginia. Cities: Paris, Boston, Athens, Lyon, Corinthia, Heidelberg, spa towns in general. Animals: dogs, cats and all pets. Food: root vegetables: carrots, celeriac, kohlrabies, potatoes etc... Also dried fruits such as chestnuts. Herbs and aromatics: the same as Gemini whose ruler is Mercury too, lilies of the valley, lavenders, myrtles, ferns, Venus-hair-ferns, bittersweets, clovers. Flowers and plants: small bright-coloured flowers, especially blue and yellow, such as dandelions, buttercups, yellow dead-nettles, buglosses, forget-me-nots ; cardamoms, oak leaves, acorns. Trees: all nut trees, e.g. the hazelnut tree... Stones, Metals and Salts: sards (red agate), mercury, nickel, potassium sulphate and iron phosphate.

Signs: Libra
 
"we are"
September 23 - October 22

2nd Air sign - 3rd Cardinal sign (autumn equinox) - Masculine

In analogy with Venus, his ruler and the 7th House

Libra governs the kidneys and the bladder.

His colour is blue or red (not too bright), his stone is the opal, his day is Friday, his professions are in the beauty, luxury or fashion industry, musician, artistic creator, lawyer, mediator...

If your sign is Libra or your Ascendant is Libra: you are sentimental, charming, polite, refined, loyal, a pacifist, fair, distinguished, light-hearted, romantic, learned, ethereal, nice, well-groomed, a perfectionist, calm, sweet, tolerant, sociable, elegant, considerate, seductive, aesthetic, indulgent, but also hesitant, weak, indecisive, selfish, fragile, fearful, indolent, cool or even insensitive.

Some traditional associations with Libra: Countries: Japan, Canada, Indo-China, South Pacific Islands, Burma, Argentina, Upper Egypt, Tibet. Cities: Lisbon, Vienna, Frankfurt, Leeds, Nottingham, Johannesburg, Antwerp, Fribourg. Animals: lizards and small reptiles. Food: berries, apples, pears, grapes, artichokes, asparagus, beans, spices, corn and other cereals. Herbs and aromatics: mint, Cayenne pepper. Flowers and plants: hydrangea, big roses, blue flowers and those associated with Taurus also ruled by Venus, namely, poppies, digitales, violets, primroses, aquilegia, and daisies. Trees: ash trees, poplars, apple trees, pear trees, fig-trees, cypresses. Stones, Metals and Salts: sapphires, jade, copper, potassium and sodium phosphate.

Signs: Scorpio
 
"we have"
October 23 - November 21

2nd Water sign - 3rd Fixed sign - Feminine

In analogy with Pluto, her ruler with Mars, and the 8th House

Scorpio governs the sexual organs and the anus.

Her colour is black or dark red, her stone is the malachite, her day is Tuesday, her professions are gynaecologist, psychiatrist, detective, the military, army, stockbroker, asset managemer...

If your sign is Scorpio or your Ascendant is Scorpio: you are secretive, powerful, domineering, resistant, intuitive, asserted, charismatic, magnetic, strong-willed, perspicacious, passionate, creative, independent, vigorous, generous, loyal, hard-working, persevering, untameable, possessive, cunning, ambitious, sexual, proud, intense, competitive but also aggressive, destructive, stubborn, anxious, tyrannical, perverse, sadistic, violent, self-centred, complex, jealous.

Some traditional associations with Scorpio: Countries: Morocco, Norway, Algeria, Syria, Korea, Uruguay, Transvaal. Cities: Washington, New Orleans, Valencia, Liverpool, Milwaukee, Fes, Halifax, Hull, Cincinnati. Animals: insects and other invertebrates. Food: the same strong tasting food as for Aries: red meat, garlic, onions, leeks, spices. Herbs and aromatics: aloes, witch hazels, nepeta, mustard, capers, peppers. Flowers and plants: geraniums, rhododendrons, thistles, mint, honeysuckles. Trees: blackthorns, bushes. Stones, Metals and Salts: opals, steel and iron, calcium and sodium sulphate.

Signs: Sagittarius
 
"we think"
November 22 - December 20

3rd Fire sign - 3rd Mutable sign - Masculine

In analogy with Jupiter, his ruler, and the 9th House

Sagittarius governs the thighs and the liver.

His colour is indigo, orange or red, his stone is the carbuncle, his day is Thursday, his professions are explorer, commercial traveller, pilot, philosopher, writer, clergyman...

If your sign is Sagittarius or your Ascendant is Sagittarius: you are charismatic, fiery, energetic, likeable, benevolent, tidy, jovial, optimistic, extraverted, amusing, straightforward, demonstrative, charming, independent, adventurous, straightforward, bold, exuberant, freedom-loving.

Some traditional associations with Sagittarius: Countries: Spain, Australia, Hungary, South Africa, Arabia, Yugoslavia. Cities: Stuttgart, Toledo, Budapest, Cologne, Avignon, Sheffield, Naples, Toronto. Animals: fallow deers, hinds, and all games. Food: grapefruits, raisins, onions, leeks, bulb vegetables. Herbs and aromatics: aniseeds, sage, bilberries, cinnamon, borage, mosses, sage, blueberry, patience, balsam. Flowers and plants: dandelions, carnations, thistles. Trees: mulberry trees, chestnut trees, ash trees, lemon trees, oaks. Stones, Metals and Salts: topaz, tin, silica, potassium chloride.

Signs: Capricorn
 
"we achieve"
December 21 - January 19

3rd Earth sign - 4th Cardinal sign (winter solstice) - Feminine

In analogy with Saturn, her ruler, and the 10th House

Capricorn governs the knees, the bones and the skin.

Her colour is black, or grey, green or brown, her stone is the jade, her day is Saturday, her professions are politician, researcher, jurist, scientist, engineer, administrator...

If your sign is Capricorn or your Ascendant is Capricorn: you are serious, cold, disciplined, patient, focused, thoughtful, ambitious, indomitable, cautious, lucid, persistent, provident, steady, introverted, stern, wilful, hard-working, responsible, persevering, honest, realistic, loyal, reserved, resolute, moralistic, quiet, rigorous, attached and reliable. But you may also be curt, withdrawn, calculating, petty, cruel, unpleasant, ruthless, selfish, dull, rigid, slow or sceptical.

Some traditional associations with Capricorn: Countries: India, Mexico, Afghanistan, Macedonia, Thrace, the Yugoslavian coast, the Orkneys and Shetland Islands, Albania, Bulgaria, Saxony. Cities: Delhi, Oxford, Brussels, Mexico, Port-Saïd, Gent, Constance, Mecklenburg, all the administrative centres of capital cities. Animals: goats, pigs and animals with split hooves. Food: meat, potatoes, barley, beets, spinach, medlars, onions, quinces, flour and starchy food in general. Herbs and aromatics: indian hemp, comfreys, centaureas, hemlocks, henbanes. Flowers and plants: ivies, wild pansies, amaranths, pansies. Trees: pines, willows, flowering ashes, aspens, poplars, alders. Stones, Metals and Salts: turquoises, amethysts, silver, lead, calcium phosphate, calcium fluorine.

Signs: Aquarius
 
"we love"
January 20 - February 18

3rd Air sign - 4th Fixed sign - Masculine

In analogy with Uranus his ruler, with Saturn, and the 11th House

Aquarius governs the ankles and the legs.

His colour is navy blue or indigo, his stone is the sapphire, his day is Saturday, his professions are astrologer, high technologies, scientist, astronaut, psychiatrist, actor, electrician...

If your sign is Aquarius or your Ascendant is Aquarius: you are idealistic, altruistic, detached, independent, original, surprising, gifted, contradictory, innovative, humanistic, likeable, friendly, self-confident, impassive, quiet, intuitive, creative, charitable, elusive, disconcerting, generous, tolerant, paradoxical, and you cannot stand any kind of constraint. But you may also be marginal, resigned, distant, utopian, maladjusted, eccentric and cold.

Some traditional associations with Aquarius: Countries: Russia, Sweden, Poland, Israel, Iran, Abyssinia. Cities: Moscow, Salzburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Saint Petersburg. Animals: long distance big birds such as the albatross. Food: citrus fruits, apples, limes, dried fruits and easily preserved food. Herbs and aromatics: peppers, hot red peppers, star-fruits, and generally herbs that are spicy or with an unusual flavour. Flowers and plants: orchids, dancing ladies, polygonatum. Trees: fruit trees. Stones, Metals and Salts: aquamarines, aluminium, sodium chloride and magnesium phosphate.

Signs: Pisces
 
"we serve"
February 19 - March 20

3rd Water sign - 4th Mutable sign - Feminine

In analogy with Neptune her ruler with Jupiter, and the 12th House

Pisces governs the feet and the blood circulation.

Her colour is green or purple or turquoise blue, her stone is the amethyst, her day is Thursday, her professions are seamanship and and faraway travels, musician, social and emergency worker, doctor, writer and jobs in remote places...

If your sign is Pisces or your Ascendant is Pisces: you are emotional, sensitive, dedicated, adaptable, nice, wild, compassionate, romantic, imaginative, flexible, opportunist, intuitive, impossible to categorized, irrational, seductive, placid, secretive, introverted, pleasant, artistic, and charming. But you may also be indecisive, moody, confused, wavering, lazy, scatterbrained, vulnerable, unpredictable and gullible.

Some traditional associations with Pisces: Countries: Portugal, Scandinavia, small Mediterranean islands, Gobi desert, Sahara. Cities: Jerusalem, Warsaw, Alexandria, Seville, Santiago de Compostela. Animals: fishes, aquatic mammals and all animals living in the water. Food: melons, cucumbers, lettuces, vegemite sugar, pumpkins. Herbs and aromatics: lemon, chicory, limes, mosses. Flowers and plants: water lilies, willows, aquatic plants. Trees: fig-trees, willows, aquatic trees. Stones, Metals and Salts: heliotropes, moonstone, platinum, tin, iron phosphate and potassium sulphate.

Sun 2°42' Capricorn, in House IX

Sun Aspects
Sun sextile Saturn orb +2°16'
Sun quintile Uranus orb -0°38'
Sun opposite Pluto orb -8°47'
Sun sesqui-quadrate Neptune orb -2°24'
Planets: Sun

The Sun represents vitality, individuality, will-power and creative energy and honours. For a woman, it also represents her father, and later her husband. The Sun is one of the most important symbols in the birth chart, as much as the Ascendant, then the Moon (a bit less for a man), the ruler of the Ascendant and the fast-moving planets.

It's element is fire; it is hot and dry, it governs Leo, is in exaltation in Aries and is in analogy with the heart. It represents the boss, authority, beside the father and the husband ; the age of the Sun goes from 20 years old to about 40, following the Venus age when one is aware of his seductive power.

Temperament : Bilious

Characterology : Emotive, Active, Secondary, passionate type.

Sun in Capricorn

Moderation and maturity prevail over fieriness. Your nature is thoughtful, stable, reserved and cautious towards all novelties. You feel fragile on the affective plane. Therefore, you protect yourself in a closed shell and you project an image of solidity and seriousness. A cold manner conceals your affectivity. But a volcano is dormant in your ivory tower… Beneath your apparent phlegm and your will to exhibit an even temper in all circumstances, there is an unfailing determination. Capricorn is very structured. More than anyone, he remains his true self, loyal to his principles, his objectives and his projects. The time required for his ascent does not matter! Tenacity is your sign’s forte. Never give up, maintain the same direction… All this suggests the junior or seasoned administrator, the person capable of handling the most diverse responsibilities, provided he could take the time to grasp their principles. Capricorn is often believed to have a belated destiny and a slow evolution. Without giving too much credit to this thesis – sometimes refuted by facts – we shall admit that the natives of this sign have the capacity to patiently and methodically build their destiny. A blue-chip security, if you manage to avoid the traps of an excessive rigour and inflexibility.

Sun in House IX

In your natal chart, the Sun is in your 9th House. Beyond the Sun, beyond models and marks, there are necessarily different truths and different references. The Sun in the 9th House prompts you to explore and to go beyond your values. It heralds spiritual quests or journeys, depending on the case. The stake is always the same and consists in pushing back the limits of your Sun, and in discovering other meanings and other differences. Your ideal? To accept in order to integrate, to grow, and to always move further.

Sun Dominant

If the Sun is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Solarian: you loathe pettiness and Machiavellian manoeuvre, and you are fond of natural nobleness as well as of direct and honest attitudes. You endeavour to get out of muddled or dark situations as quickly as possible. Your need for transparency may lead you to make cut-and-dried judgments such as yes or no, and black or white. However, your honesty commands your entourage's consideration. At times, you come across as authoritarian. It is true that you never want to be thought of the notable absentee, and that you manage to make people pay attention to you, as well as to your plans and your assessments. To this end, the Solarian sometimes develops a great talent for placing himself under the spotlight without missing a single opportunity to arouse interest. Some other Solarians, although more discreet, still manage to be the focus of any debate, even in situations of exclusion. It is your way of being present even though you are actually not there... More than other people, you appreciate the esteem extended to you. It is useless to cheat with you, since in all areas you consider establishing enduring relationships only with those who love you, admire you, respect you, or express some degree of affection to you. Your will to straighten out your inter-personal relationships is your strength and sometimes, your Achilles' heel. You cannot achieve anything behind the scenes. Therefore, your comportment is marked with heroism, and your stands are devoid of ambiguity, in the sense that your commitments are unfailing, and your rebuffs, final.

Interpretation of the 2° Capricorn symbolic degree

"A snake curls up around a three-branch chandelier with lit candles." (Janduz version)

Wise, ambitious, and subtle character endowed with numerous intellectual, physical, and moral qualities. Owing to one's sharp intuition and excellent education, one is capable of achieving success, fame, and wealth in nearly any field, be it diplomacy, science, law, civil service, literature, etc. There are few enemies only, and none of them is able to thwart one's projects. Whatever path one chooses, this degree indicates a brilliant life blessed with good luck and happiness.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Moon 27°49' Cancer, in House IV

Moon Aspects
Moon opposite Venus orb -1°10'
Moon square Saturn orb +2°36'
Moon opposite Mercury orb -5°36'
Moon sesqui-quadrate Uranus orb -1°14'
Planets: Moon

The Moon represents instinctive reaction, unconscious predestination, everyday mood, sensitivity, emotions, the feminine side of the personality, intuition, imagination. For a man, she represents his mother and later his wife, and his relationship with women in general. For a woman, the Moon is almost as important as the Sun and the Ascendant. Her element is water, she is cold and moist, she rules Cancer, is in exaltation in Taurus and is in analogy with the stomach.

She symbolizes the mother, wife, the crowd, the Moon is associated with birth and childhood. Tradition also matches her with the end of life, after Saturn the old age, it is thus customary to go back to one's place of birth to die: the end of life meets the very beginning.

Temperament : Lymphatic

Characterology : Emotive, non Active and Primary type or Non-Emotive, non Active and Primary, Nervous or Amorphous type.

Moon in Cancer

On the day and at the time of your birth, the Moon was in the sign of Cancer Your nature is contemplative. You live in a realm made of images, sensations and emotions. Your private secrets constitute a jungle full of symbols and souvenirs. You have a vivid memory of the past and a very present feeling of previous experiences and emotions. Your family roots remain omnipresent in your intimate behaviours and influence your habits. Your lunar sign belongs to the Cancer-Capricorn zodiacal axis that is particularly selective and self-protective: your close friends are handpicked and cautiously chosen for their natural suitability to your personal realm. The external world is often disturbing. Therefore, you must create an enclosed environment where your fragile sensitivity can blossom at will. The only danger may be that you confine your life rhythms in immutable rites and in a simplistic daily ceremonial. With more flexible intimate behaviours, your sensitivity can be fully expressed and the absolute harmony you dream of can be achieved.

Moon in House IV

The Moon is in the 4th House. Feeling fine means enjoying at will the privacy of your family cell, your clan, or a protective world. Your intense desire for tranquillity often prompts you to escape the world, and to let your imagination wander without having your well-being disturbed by external issues. Your family, or the few close friends who make up your second family, if any, constitutes the haven which is necessary for your balance.

Moon Dominant

If the Moon is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Lunarian: the driving force behind your actions is mainly the pursuit of well-being and tranquillity. Your sensitive and romantic self lives on those periods of rest during which you let your imagination wander at will. This is your way of finding inspiration and balance. Nothing is allowed to disturb your feeling of fulfilment and security within a harmonious cell, be it a family or a clan. More than other people, the Lunarian is attached to those moments during which one forgets one's worries and lets oneself cast adrift aimlessly, with no other goal than to be lulled into an ambiance, a situation, or a perfect moment. Many people do not understand such absences and their meaning, which is to regain strength. These people readily describe you with such unflattering terms as apathy and nonchalance. Never mind! Some inspirations require surrendering as well as striking a balance derived from alternate action and passivity. Your qualities are expressed to the fullest in situations which demand familiarity and privacy. Your capacities to respect and blend into your environment is at least as valuable as some other people's aggressive dispositions. However, you are well-advised to avoid indolence and renunciation out of laziness or indifference.

Interpretation of the 27° Cancer symbolic degree

"Two friends seated under a tree admire a magnificent scenery." (Janduz version)

Affectionate, altruistic, and endearing character, more interested in outdoor activities than in socialising. One is endowed with sharp intellectual abilities and amasses a wealth of knowledge. One seeks harmony and values sincerity in the family and human relations in general. All occupations involving the soil, trees, and nature are deeply fulfilling. Life unfolds in simplicity and happiness. Sometimes, this degree describes strong gifts for occultism, and healing powers using medicinal plants and herbs.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Mercury 22°13' Capricorn, in House X

Mercury Aspects
Moon opposite Mercury orb -5°36'
Mercury conjunction Venus orb +6°46'
Mercury semi-square Jupiter orb +0°27'
Mercury inconjunction Neptune orb +2°05'
Planets: Mercury

Mercury represents communication, logical and rational mind, intellectual skills. Earth is its element, it is cold and dry, and it rules Virgo and Gemini, is in exaltation in Virgo and is in analogy with the arms, hands, nervous system.

It represents tradesmen, lawyers, messengers; the age of Mercury goes from 8 or10 years old to about 15..

Temperament : Nervous

Characterology : Emotive, non Active and Primary type or Non-Emotive, Active and Primary, Nervous or Sanguine type.

Mercury in Capricorn

Mercury describes your relations, your communication skills and the way you relate to the external world. However, other astrological elements also influence these areas. The sign Mercury occupies is significant only if Mercury is part of your planetary dominantes. In your chart, Mercury is in Capricorn. Your friendships are as solid as stone. The deepness of your exchanges is what matters above all and the quality of your relationships prevails over quantity. You assimilate new concepts slowly because you need the time to judge them and analyze them before you accept them. You strive to keep your clear-sightedness on the alert in all circumstances. Your strength lies in your self-protection power and the ability to remain distant. The only danger is that your contacts may lack spontaneity.

Mercury in House X

With Mercury in the 10th House, your social role includes communication and human relations. The ideal professional activity for you is in jobs involving meetings, dialogues, exchanges, and trade. According to the Tradition, Mercury symbolises mobility and adaptation. The key to your fulfilment is probably your capacity for communication. It is a valuable asset nowadays... The Tradition also mentions a gift for business.

Mercury Dominant

If Mercury is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Mercurian: the tradition points out the importance of communication. From idle but enriching chatters to observation gift, such a dominant endows you with a wide range of expression. Human beings have one thousand facets and one thousand masks they wear according to circumstances and the fortunes of the game of life. You take the role of an observer who is avid for novelties, discoveries, and surprises. Everything catches your attention and becomes an opportunity for new encounters, relationships, and learning. The world amazes you, amuses you sometimes, and stimulates your curiosity. Because the most important thing is to discover, and because you consider that each new situation is packed with potentialities, you try to fill the gaps in your knowledge. Although your open-mindedness may scatter your centres of interest, it also enables you to carefully avoid sticking to only one immutable and rigid view. The slightest sign enables you to perceive the other side of the coin, as well as the infinite complexity of people and of situations. On the human plane, you seek the dialogue and the information without which you know that you are not able to fully grasp the nature of your interlocutor. This keen interest in the Unknown sharpens your inter-relational skills. All these qualities are traditionally associated with Mercury.

Interpretation of the 22° Capricorn symbolic degree

"As she pulls a man by the hand, a blindfolded woman knocks down the table on which their romantic dinner is served." (Janduz version)

Impulsive, sensual, and weak character. One uses one's intellectual and financial resources with the sole objective to fulfil one's passions and whims. So-called friends take advantage of one's carelessness and disappear as soon as money becomes scarce. In few cases, this degree describes a fatality which wreaks havoc in the home, and a possible suicide.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Venus 28°59' Capricorn, in House X

Venus Aspects
Moon opposite Venus orb -1°10'
Venus square Saturn orb -1°26'
Mercury conjunction Venus orb +6°46'
Venus semi-square Uranus orb +0°04'
Planets: Venus

Venus represents the way one loves, relationships, sharing, affectivity, seductive ability. For men, she also corresponds to the kind of woman he's attracted to (but not especially in marriage which is more symbolized by the Moon, Venus is the lover and not the wife). Her element is the Air, she is moist, rules Taurus and Libra, is in exaltation in Pisces and is in analogy with the kidneys, the venous system, the bladder, the neck.

She represents the artists, tradesmen, occupations linked to beauty and charm; the age of Venus goes from 15 to about 25 years old.

Temperament : Sanguine and Lymphatic

Characterology : Emotive, non Active and Primary type or Emotive, non Active and Secondary type.

Venus in Capricorn

Venus describes your affective life. On the day of your birth, she is found in Capricorn. You are a fragile and sensitive person and you give the priority to the deepness of your feelings and the steadiness of your relationships. Your senses do not respond to all forms of stimulations. Your affective life has a cautious, reserved, moderate and … intense nature. You forge your feelings slowly. You distrust love at first sight. Like faithfulness, love must be earned. Nothing is readily given in this area. Your sensitivity is deep but discreet, intense but concealed and inclines you to caution: frivolous loves do not interest you. You value sentimental attachments based on total and mutual trust. You know the cost of misunderstandings and delusions and you never commit yourself thoughtlessly. Modesty is a quality in some cases. But why do you hide your feelings so often? As you protect yourself too much, as you want to avoid being hurt, you may get locked up in an ivory tower and you may miss passionate loves. You may uselessly complicate situations: life together is simpler than you may think. You must learn to trust it. With time, you will be at your best.

Venus in House X

Venus expresses her characteristics through the 10th House values. Your vocation is related to aesthetics, art, or decoration. Obviously, life does not always offer you the means to fully achieve your aspirations. Nevertheless, your Venusian qualities, namely charm, aesthetic taste, and receptiveness, remain valuable assets in order to assert your ambitions and to play a social role matching your true nature. You are endowed with a few artistic gifts, and an innate sense of beauty.

Venus Dominant

If Venus is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Venusian: you are a sensual and emotional person particularly receptive to the natural likes and dislikes aroused by your contact with people. You are prone to frequent instinctive aversions and true passions which are exclusively driven by the feeling of love. The heart has its reasons which Reason knows nothing of... Your balance is based on the richness of your affective life. Without love, the Venusian is resourceless, lost, and deprived of any reason for living. You have an obvious and strong will to charm and to arouse the attachments without which you cannot properly function. Every area of your life is thus marked by your affectivity. The danger is that you may "be taken in" by charm. In such cases, you would prefer to keep your emotions under better control. Thus, hyper-sensitivity has its own inconveniences. Nevertheless, better than anyone else, you know how to play with feelings and attractions. Although you are sometimes caught in the traps of an over sensitive emotionalism, feelings remain your best assets in many circumstances. There is another aspect to the Venusian dominant. According to the Tradition, this planet rules the Arts, and you are endowed with some degree of artistic dispositions, ranging from good to excellent.

Interpretation of the 28° Capricorn symbolic degree

"At the edge of a pond, a beautiful statue lies in the grass." (Janduz version)

Loyal, creative, and contemplative character endowed with poetic and artistic gifts. One enjoys the simple pleasures offered by nature and finds in its beauties an inexhaustible source of inspiration. Success can be achieved in any artistic discipline, in law, or in medicine. Should the natal chart concur, this degree indicates sojourns in the countryside or in the mountain for health reasons.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Mars 13°46' Scorpio, in House VII

Mars Aspects
Mars trine Uranus orb +0°17'
Mars trine Pluto orb +2°16'
Mars square Neptune orb -6°21'
Planets: Mars

Mars represents the desire for action and physical energy, sexuality, strength. For a woman, Mars corresponds to the kind of man she's attracted to (but not especially in marriage which is rather symbolized by the Sun, Mars is the lover, not the husband). Fire is its element, it is hot and dry, and it rules Aries and Scorpio (along with Pluto), is in exaltation with Capricorn and is in analogy with the muscles and the spleen.

It represents the soldiers, sportsmen, warriors, surgeons, blacksmiths... ; the age of Mars goes from 42 to 50 years old.

Temperament : Bilious

Characterology : Emotive, Active, Primary type. It is a Choleric.

Mars in Scorpio

The planet Mars indicates how you react to life concrete stimulations. It also describes your fighting spirit, your abilities to stand for yourself and to take action. With Mars in Scorpio, you are endowed with a strong survival instinct! You often feel that you are threatened by other people’s will. You are sensitive to power struggles and you are stimulated by difficulties. You are determined to be reckoned with and to have your decisions respected. This configuration allows you to efficiently cope with crises. But it is not advisable for you to stir troubles! It is important that you control your propensity to challenge and to antagonize. You are endowed with a strong vitality and a demanding sexual drive. Your assets? An extraordinary tenacity and unusual recovery powers allow you to overcome obstacles when you are doubtful and willing to give up. You are sensitive to the imperfections of situations and you easily detect hidden obstacles and traps.

Mars in House VII

With Mars in the 7th House, the world is a battlefield! Of course, you do not consider that everybody is a contender. Fortunately! Nevertheless, you have a confrontational nature, with an acute and burning sensitivity. You often challenge the other person, be it your partner or your friend, your spouse, or your lover. The limit to your sociability is a fierce temperament which reacts promptly whenever the situation is threatening.

Mars Dominant

If Mars is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Marsian: in your hand-to-hand struggle for life, you demonstrate an acute and active sense of confrontation with the world, with other people, and with your own destiny. You need to take action and to fight for your projects and your desires. You perceive all situations with deep intensity, and you react to the here and now without bothering to step back in order to ensure that events are under your control. You take up challenges with excessive foolhardiness as a consequence of your impulsiveness. However, better than anyone else, you know how to mobilise your resources in case of crisis. You take action whenever it is necessary to do so, and you are present in a timely manner. With Mars, your attitudes are dictated by the realities of the moment, by your emotions, and by everything which proved to have worked in the past. When this dominant is not well integrated, it may bring about an aggressive or impulsive behaviour. Therefore, you must learn to control your hyper-sensitivity and your fits of temper. You are also endowed with Marsian qualities: the fighting spirit and the taste for duel without which one may find oneself overwhelmed by events. When this willpower is well channelled, its precious energy enables to cope with all sorts of contingencies. There are a thousand ways to win, and a thousand challenges to take up with the enthusiasm and the dynamism which make life so worthy. A certain idea of life which is wild, passionate, and in tune with events.

Interpretation of the 13° Scorpio symbolic degree

"Under a flowery arbour, a group of cheerful guests have a feast. Water overflows from a well adorned with beautiful roses." (Janduz version)

Jovial, sincere, and generous character. One confides in anyone, including in persons who are not trustworthy. Owing to one's excessive and undiscerning generosity, one is easily taken advantage of by greedy people, and thus, one endangers one's wealth. If in the natal chart, the Sun is in conjunction with this degree, it indicates frail health.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Jupiter 6°45' Sagittarius, in House VIII

Jupiter Aspects
Mercury semi-square Jupiter orb +0°27'
Jupiter square Uranus orb +7°18'
Planets: Jupiter

Jupiter represents expansion and power, benevolence, large vision and generosity. Its element is Air, it is hot and moist, and it rules Sagittarius and Pisces (along with Neptune), is in exaltation with Cancer and is in analogy with the hips and endocrinal system.

It represents the governors, magistrates, professors, religious men too; the age of Jupiter goes from 50 to 55 or even 70 years old.

Temperament : Sanguine

Characterology : Emotive, Active, Primary type; it is an extrovert Choleric. Actually the humid version of Mars, inclined to action like him.

Jupiter in Sagittarius

The planet Jupiter symbolizes expansion, broadness and generosity. Jupiter is associated with the functions of synthesis, enthusiasm and optimism. In your natal chart, his house position is more important than his sign position because, like Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, he is a slow planet. Many people born in the same period have Jupiter in the same sign. This is the reason why the sign occupied here is less meaningful than when it is occupied by the so-called fast planets, i.e. the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars. Therefore, some caution is to be exercised as you read what follows. Jupiter in Sagittarius is very popular because he rules this sign, and, according to the Tradition, he is most potent and at his best. He endows you with all his natural qualities: enthusiasm, sense of humour, boldness, warmth, optimism, leadership, synthesizing mind, but also, propensity for travels or, symbolically, disposition for higher knowledge and matters such as spirituality, philosophy, politics or religion.

Jupiter in House VIII

With Jupiter in the 8th House, you are endowed with great faculties of abnegation, adaptation, and insertion into social life. Whenever the situation demands it, you renounce your interests or your objectives and you blend into the group. This configuration is that of self-sacrifice, symbolic deaths and different rebirths, for the sake of codified and freely accepted morals. Renunciation, self-sacrifice and altruism are qualities you claim as your own.

Jupiter Dominant

If Jupiter is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Jupiterian: because this planet brings about a keen interest in social and professional success, the Tradition considers it to be beneficial. Indeed, you know how to adjust to events and to jump at the chance when it arises. The members of you entourage gladly entrust you with high responsibilities because they are often impressed by your learning skills and your adaptation abilities as you deal with new structures and new languages. What is the secret of your good star? It is your self-confidence which wins public support. Now, what is the secret of your charm? Definitely, enthusiasm, euphoria, and exaltation. Exaggeration also. When this dominant is well integrated, it is a factor of affluence and optimism, and a certain degree of joviality enables you to easily fit into various spheres. It constitutes your main asset to manage your life. However, you must at times curb your desire for integration, lest your sense of opportunity turns into extreme opportunism. Here also, the key to success lies in a correct estimate of everyone's chances and possibilities. Although management is one of your forte, and you can adjust your objectives to current realities better than other people, you lack the hindsight which enables you to avoid short-term vagaries and daily fluctuations. If you strive too much to adapt, you run a risk of betraying yourself. This is the other traditional side of the coin with "The Greater Benefic"!

Interpretation of the 6° Sagittarius symbolic degree

"Oxen and goats graze in a pasture under the sun." (Janduz version)

Quiet, contented, and hard-working character. Occupations in the industry of cattle breeding and all agricultural products are very favoured. One is happily married and enjoys a fulfilling family life.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Saturn 0°26' Scorpio, in House VII

Saturn Aspects
Moon square Saturn orb +2°36'
Venus square Saturn orb -1°26'
Sun sextile Saturn orb +2°16'
Saturn sesqui-quadrate Uranus orb -1°22'
Planets: Saturn

Saturn represents concentration, effort, perseverance, time, the hard reality, inevitable consequences. Earth is its element, it is cold and dry, and it rules Capricorn and Aquarius (along with Uranus), is in exaltation in Libra and is in analogy with the bones (skeleton) and the skin.

It represents the grandparents, old people, scientists, knowledgeable men, Saturn corresponds to old age; it goes from 70 years old until death.

Temperament : Nervous

Characterology : Non-Emotive, Active and Secondary type or Emotive, non Active and Secondary type or sometimes Non-Emotive, non Active and Secondary type; it is a Phlegmatic, a Sentimental or an Empathic type

Saturn in Scorpio

The planet Saturn symbolizes contraction, effort, time, limitation and concentration. Saturn eliminates anything that is not authentic, sooner or later. It is impossible to cheat him as he gives an irresistible desire to form a coherent whole with oneself, in responsible and wise ways. He is the great purifier. He represents our limitations but also our truth. In your natal chart, the house position where Saturn is posited is more important than his sign position because, like Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, he is a slow planet. Many people born in the same period have Saturn in the same sign. This is the reason why the sign occupied here is less meaningful than when it is occupied by the so-called fast planets, i.e. the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars. Therefore, some caution is to be exercised as you read what follows. Saturn in Scorpio reinforces your resistance. Your demand for precision and your will to comprehend all things may make you seem a bit tough or harsh to your entourage. Because you are fond of precision, you are interested in exact sciences; your capacity to understand mysteries is strengthened. You learn to control your instincts, even though it may be detrimental to your spontaneity.

Saturn in House VII

In your natal chart, Saturn is in the 7th House. This configuration predisposes to some degree of rigour in human relations, associations, or within the couple. To link up to the world is not an easy task, and to blend into it is even more difficult. Your doubts and your questionings do not facilitate your social integration. However, your steady honesty works wonders once mutual confidence has dispelled reluctances and the sense of modesty you may have. Nevertheless, people should beware and never cheat on you!

Saturn Dominant

If Saturn is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Saturnian: you gladly leave to other people the decision to take life as it comes. As far as you are concerned, you prefer to take advantage of your experiences in order to discover, to grow, and to question yourself.

Interpretation of the 0° Scorpio symbolic degree

"A wounded man lies at the feet of an armed warrior beside a chest brimming with jewels." (Janduz version)

Foolhardy, combative, and intransigent character. One does not hesitate to get involved in conflicts, no matter how dangerous they might be. There is a strong probability of violence and accident, whether one is the perpetrator or the victim. If aggressive instincts are constructively canalised, one may be entrusted with a position of authority and achieve success through acts of bravery.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Uranus 14°03' Pisces, in House XII

Uranus Aspects
Mars trine Uranus orb +0°17'
Uranus trine Pluto orb -2°33'
Venus semi-square Uranus orb +0°04'
Moon sesqui-quadrate Uranus orb -1°14'
Sun quintile Uranus orb -0°38'
Saturn sesqui-quadrate Uranus orb -1°22'
Jupiter square Uranus orb +7°18'
Planets: Uranus

Uranus represents individual freedom, originality, independence, marginality, avant guard inspiration, ultra modernism. Fire is its element, it is dry, and it rules Aquarius, is in exaltation with Scorpio and is in analogy with the brain and the nerves.

It represents inventors, odd characters, revolutionaries.

Temperament : Nervous to the extreme

Characterology : Emotive, Active, Secondary type; it is a Passionate type.

Uranus in Pisces

The planet Uranus symbolizes originality, independence and cerebral energy bursting suddenly. Uranus triggers the irresistible need for freedom that we have in ourselves. Uranus tends to break the constraints that have become unbearable and gives us the courage and the will to get rid of what has become a burden; when he is well aspected, he also indicates genius. In your natal chart, Uranus’ house position is more important than his sign position because, like Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Pluto, he is a slow planet. Many people born in the same period have Uranus in the same sign. This is the reason why the sign occupied here is less meaningful than when it is occupied by the so-called fast planets, i.e. the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars. Therefore, some caution is to be exercised as you read what follows. The sign positions of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto have a collective meaning. They do not influence your personality, unless they are involved in numerous aspects or when they emphasize a personal point of your natal chart such as your Ascendant’s ruler, an angular planet, i.e. a planet near the Ascendant, the Midheaven, the Nadir or the Descendant. In such cases, the activity of the slow planet is very highlighted. Uranus in Pisces brings about sudden and spasmodic waves of emotions. You may be overwhelmed by feelings that creep over you, although they are inevitably filtered by your intellect: this is quite a peculiar configuration, indeed, made of cerebral-ness and inspiration.

Uranus in House XII

With Uranus in the 12th House, you set high standards for your ideals. Beyond self-interests and frenzied individualism, you look for a reason for living, for a model, or for a guide. You are open to revelations which may radically change your manner and your life. A clap of thunder out of the blue... Your marks crumble, and new convictions crop up. This is a U-turn! However, you must be wary of all kinds of fanaticism.

Uranus Dominant

If Uranus is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Uranian: personal values are prevailing. Inner certainties fuel an inflexible will and a desire to call attention on yourself as well as to follow your beliefs through. This planet prompts you to behave with determination, to put forward your own truth, and to start your personal revolution. More than other people, you are willing to keep some degree of autonomy in all circumstances, and you often display an individualistic nature. In order to achieve your ideal of freedom and independence, you may act like a despot as you try to convince and to impose your views, whether smoothly or forcefully. Regardless of the flexibility of your comportment, some situations demand an absolute firmness as well as uncompromising, frank and straightforward attitudes. People may criticise you for your intransigence and say that you are a hardliner. Outsider's opinions don't matter! The most important thing is that you act in all conscience and reach your primary objectives. More than anyone else, you know how to use your willpower and to focus your energy on a precise aim, relentlessly, whatever the consequences might be. In the chapter of qualities, let's mention a definite sense of responsibility, an innovative mind open to techniques and modern ideas, as well as a natural self-discipline which overcomes many an obstacle. Therefore, people are well-advised not to hound you into a corner.

Interpretation of the 14° Pisces symbolic degree

"An arrows flies through a cloud against a backdrop of snowy peaks. Below, a man holding a dagger hides behind shrubs." (Janduz version)

Ambitious, determined, and aggressive character. One believes that one is entrusted with a special mission and must follow the path which has been drawn by a mysterious hand. Although one means well, one must avoid violent confrontations and resort to dialogue in order to conciliate diverging stands. Otherwise, tough opponents may start an unremitting fight and thwart projects. If in the natal chart, Neptune or Jupiter is strong, or on this degree, there may be a gift for occultism.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Neptune 20°07' Я Leo, in House V

Neptune Aspects
Mars square Neptune orb -6°21'
Mercury inconjunction Neptune orb +2°05'
Sun sesqui-quadrate Neptune orb -2°24'
Planets: Neptune

Neptune represents escapism, impressionability, daydreaming, delusions, carelessness, deception or intuition, dishonesty or inspiration, telepathy. Water is its element, it is moist, it rules Pisces, is in exaltation in Cancer, though some authors say it is Leo, and is in analogy with the vegetative system.

It represents dreamers, mediums, magicians, merchants of illusion, drug addicts.

Temperament : rather Lymphatic

Characterology : Emotive, non Active, Primary or Secondary type; it is a Sentimental, or sometimes Amorphous type.

Neptune in Leo

The planet Neptune symbolizes extreme receptivity, intense emotional sharpness, impressionability and inspiration; it is the planet of mediums, mystics and religious faith. In an astrological chart, it indicates dilution, vagueness, understanding one’s environment through emotions and the absence of clear and determined limits and structures. In your natal chart, Neptune’s house position is more important than his sign position because, like Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Pluto, he is a slow planet. Many people born in the same period have Neptune in the same sign. This is the reason why the sign occupied here is less meaningful than when it is occupied by the so-called fast planets, i.e. the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars. Therefore, some caution is to be exercised as you read what follows. The sign positions of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto have a collective meaning. They do not influence your personality, unless they are involved in numerous aspects or when they emphasize a personal point of your natal chart such as your Ascendant’s ruler, an angular planet, i.e. a planet near the Ascendant, the Midheaven, the Nadir or the Descendant. In such cases, the activity of the slow planet is very highlighted. Neptune in Leo endows you with creativity in the fields of arts or literature. Your emotions are noble and idealized.

Neptune in House V

With Neptune in the 5th House, you tightly associate creation with aspirations, and love with spirituality. It is the innermost part of you, the most elusive one, which you are willing to give. Your sentimental life brings into play the romanticism of passion, and beyond, the quest for a true vocation. Love is not an ordinary adventure, but a sacred mission. It is a necessity which may lead to a total devotion and to a freely accepted self-sacrifice. If this configuration prompts you to establish high standards for your affective life - hence your idealism and unavoidable demands - it also adds to the tastiness and the riches of your amorous comportments. You are romantic and poetic, and you stand up for your idea of passion.

Neptune Dominant

If Neptune is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Neptunian: your intuition is highly developed. You are of a contemplative nature, and you are particularly receptive to ambiances, places, and people. You gladly cultivate the art of letting-go, and you allow the natural unfolding of events to construct your world. You follow your inspirations, for better or for worse. At times, you display an extraordinary clairvoyance gift. You seem to be able to read your subconscious like a book, and you track down subtle underlying mechanisms, flaws, or open breaches. This innate intuition might explain the strokes of good luck which the Neptunian is sometimes credited with. However, you may also be the victim of illusions and misleading intuitions. You are an idealist, and you let your deepest aspirations prevail over the realities of the moment. Then, you set off in quest of some quixotic objective, living like a Don Quixote who relentlessly pursues an impossible dream. You have a great talent for psychology and the mysteries of the human soul. Since you instinctively perceive people's intents and motivations, as you swim in the complexity of human nature, you feel in your element. The subtlety of your perceptiveness is the source of both special affections and irrevocable rejections. What is the danger of such a dominant? If it is not offset by other influences in your natal chart, you may not have an iron will. Your trump card is your instinct, which may be developed to the extent that it becomes clairvoyance.

Interpretation of the 20° Leo symbolic degree

"A man emerging from the mist holds a key in one hand and raises the other hand towards a moon-shaped face, above which a snake sleeps." (Janduz version)

Compassionate, diplomatic, and far-sighted character. The sleeping snake symbolises introspection, penetrating intelligence, as well as wisdom. The raised hand calls attention upon the great mysteries of life. Success can be achieved in human sciences, mathematics, astronomy, or any intellectual pursuit requiring method and riddle-solving talents.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Pluto 11°30' Я Cancer, in House III

Pluto Aspects
Mars trine Pluto orb +2°16'
Uranus trine Pluto orb -2°33'
Sun opposite Pluto orb -8°47'
Planets: Pluto

Pluto represents deep transformations, mutations and eliminations, sexuality and magnetism, power and secrets, destruction with a view to regeneration, the phoenix rising from the ashes. Its element is indefinite; burning (like lava in fusion ?), it rules Scorpio, is in exaltation in Pisces and is in analogy with the sexual organs and excretion.

It represents dictators, sadistic people, violent characters, is instinctive and powerful but also mysterious with hidden strengths.

Temperament : rather Bilious

Characterology : Emotive or non-Emotive, Active, Primary type; it is a Passionate Choleri typec.

Pluto in Cancer

The planet Pluto symbolizes deep disruptions and upheavals, domination and sexual instincts, and the inner power we have in ourselves. Pluto destroys in order to reconstruct and he provokes painful crises that are needed in metamorphosis. Pluto is our deepest instincts’ brutal force. It is the hidden and unconscious violence that can explode in us with incredible intensity before being projected in our actions; in itself, the planet is not negative: the might and the intensity of its energy are beyond the conceivable but it can be funnelled. Pluto is the only possibility we have at our disposal to overcome our inner blocks and to eliminate outgrown situations that have become inextricable. Pluto’s energy is valuable because of its usefulness for the irreversible destruction of what constitutes a problem and not because of its negative side and its perversity. Pluto allows to reconstruct and to regenerate parts of our personality or whole stretches of our life, provided that we manage to funnel his wild energy and to step back. It is impossible to tame this energy, given its essence. However, it is possible to take advantage of it for a precise aim, through a temporary identification of some parts of us with this energy. In such a case, the outcome is our final evolution and even, our transformation. In your natal chart, Pluto’s house position is more important than his sign position because, like Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, Pluto is a slow planet. Many people born in the same period have Pluto in the same sign. This is the reason why the sign occupied here is less meaningful than when it is occupied by the so-called fast planets, i.e. the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars. Therefore, some caution is to be exercised as you read what follows. The sign positions of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto have a collective meaning. They do not influence your personality and they are not to be really taken into account, unless they are involved in numerous aspects or when they emphasize a personal point of your natal chart such as your Ascendant’s ruler, an angular planet, i.e. a planet near the Ascendant, the Midheaven, the Nadir or the Descendant. In such cases, the activity of the slow planet is very highlighted. Pluto in Cancer may create troubles in your home because your will to control is too strong or because you are exceedingly sensitive.

Pluto in House III

With Pluto in the 3rd House, your mode of assimilation is pretty complex. Whether you encounter a person or you discover a new idea, you are primarily attracted to what is concealed and what is left unsaid. You are interested in uncovering the other side of the coin, and you understand the hidden machinery as well as what is secretly at stake in a relationship. Communication brings into play a whole set of underlying information. You are never entirely fooled, and you are fully aware of the subtle rules governing your exchanges.

Pluto Dominant

If Pluto is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Plutonian: you sometimes feel like a foreigner who does not belong to the world, to its laws, and its concerns. The rules of life in society are not necessarily yours. You are interested in what is unknown and in the subtle laws of a hidden order. So, you take malicious pleasure in ridiculing the patterns you find too simplistic or too rigid. You also revel in underlining the limits of explanations you deem too common. There is something unconventional about the way you are, the way you think, and the way you act. What is your specificity made of? Is it an extraordinary partner? A life off the beaten path? Or do you only distance yourself from conventional morals? In any case, you have the feeling, sometimes quite vague, that you come from nowhere, and that you do not belong to any definite group... In short, it means that you cannot be simplified in order to conform to existing models. The gap between you and ordinary mortals is also an element of your strength. Your deep clear-sightedness, firstly, enables you to put things into perspective and to grant them only the attention they deserve. Your other remarkable asset is your capacity to intervene from behind the scenes, to secretly organise events, and to bring about the desirable outcome without seeming to impose or to dictate anything. However, you must still overcome one of the major difficulties of this dominant, which is to get people to accept your difference and to smoothly fit into your environment.

Interpretation of the 11° Cancer symbolic degree

"A caduceus stands between two waxing moons, a small crescent, and a nearly full moon." (Janduz version)

Intelligent, serious, and subtle character. One is prone to extreme mood swings which shift quickly from optimism to despair and vice-versa. The waxing moon stands for remarkably good memory and indicates precocious successes in studies. Science, literature, philosophy, the arts, trips and discoveries are very favoured. It is most likely that one keeps on enhancing one's intellectual skills throughout life, and one remains interested in modern improvements even as one ages. Despite a few ordeals, life is successful. If in the natal chart, Mercury is in the 1st House and in conjunction with this degree, it heralds some unexpected reward for one's knowledge.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Chiron 16°31' Я Aries, in House XII
Asteroids: Chiron

Chiron is almost renowned and used everywhere. Most astrologers consider it as a kind of "mediator" between Saturn and outer planets. Consequently, Chiron is of Saturn's nature and at the same time is influenced by Uranus, the first slow-moving planet. Astrologically, it symbolizes wisdom, patience and the faculty to reduce others' sufferings: it is said to be the "great healer" of the zodiac. Like all the secondary bodies, it must be in close conjunction with planets or angles in order to fully express its action.

Interpretation of the 16° Aries symbolic degree

"A young student holding and open book walks in a shady wood. Through the foliage, sunbeams set his face ablaze." (Janduz version)

Contemplative, helpful, and simple character. One revels in solitude and meditation, and one spends long hours pondering in order to understanding one's true nature and improve oneself. One readily responds to requests for help and protects the weak against the powerful. One is kept in high esteem for one's scientific knowledge about the laws and mysteries of nature. Although one prefers living in the quietness of a remote place, one may be brought under the spotlight by success and fame.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

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Asteroids: Ceres

Ceres, the biggest of the four minor asteroids used besides Chiron, is associated with the mythological goddess of growing plants and harvest and also symbolizes physical constitution, vitality and fertility. She's also known as Demeter, according to the astrologer Zipporah Dobyns, linked to the symbolism of the mother but in a less emotive and more physical way than the Moon. Ceres is thought to be the ruler of Virgo, in exaltation in Gemini, in exile in Pisces and in fall in Sagittarius. Keywords associated with Ceres could be order, practical sense, worry, precision, modesty, method, sobriety, motherhood, fertility, the Earth: a kind of a more cerebral Moon...

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Asteroids: Pallas

Pallas is sometimes used in modern Astrology: she represents intelligence, abstract and global thinking talents. It is usually considered to be a determining element in political strategy.

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Asteroids: Juno

Juno is the asteroid corresponding to the adaptation to the marital partner and to the defence of individual rights; it is thus used in the field of marriage.

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Asteroids: Vesta

Vesta is rarely used and brings the ability to efficiently devote oneself to a cause.

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True North Node 3°52' Я Virgo, in House V
North Node

The North Node (True Node here) represents the goals that must be achieved during life, in the karmic sense according to some traditions. Its position in house indicates in what field an effort is necessary in order to evolve. The North Node is often called the Dragon's head, it is usually considered beneficial, a bit like Jupiter with the planets. The Lunar nodes are fictional points and not actual heavenly bodies: they are the intersections of the Moon with the Ecliptic (the path made by the Sun in its orbit as seen from the Earth). The axis of the Lunar nodes moves 19 degrees each year, namely a bit more than three minutes each day.

The South Node is diametrically opposed to the North Node, therefore it faces it (it's not drawn here, it's the same symbol but upside down). It symbolizes what has already been achieved or acquired, in a karmic sense: it's the past from which it's advised to move on in order to progress. The South Node is rather negative, of a Saturnian nature: the experience through suffering.

Interpretation of the 3° Virgo symbolic degree

"A young man tills the soil with a plough and a pair of oxen. As he ages, he enjoys watching the wheat ripening." (Janduz version)

Simple and pragmatic character. Success can be achieved in agriculture or animal husbandry. Life is meaningful and happy, and old age unfolds in affluence and serenity. If the origins are modest, one is very likely to improve one's social status and purchase realties.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

True Lilith 28°27' Taurus, in House I
Lilith

Lilith or the Dark Moon (True Lilith here) represents the uncrossable threshold, taboos, the individual's provocative and fascinating side, including on a sexual level. She symbolizes violence and "untameability", the radical and deep-seated refusal to submit. The keywords for Lilith can be sterility, sadism, perversity, castration, sadomasochism, eroticism, orgasm, forbidden fantasies, marginality, cruelty; redemption, illumination, rebelliousness... Lilith's opposite point is called Priapus; it is the Lunar perigee, the position where the Moon is closest to the Earth. It symbolizes man's primitive nature, the horror hidden in our deepest self; masochism, extreme sensuality, impulsiveness, irrationality and excess. Physically speaking, the Dark Moon is the focal point unoccupied by the Earth: it is not a concrete body but a mathematical point.

Interpretation of the 28° Taurus symbolic degree

"A mighty man holding a whip pushes two enchained slaves before him. He is followed by a wild woman who pulls a billy goat by its horns." (Janduz version)

Tyrannical, selfish, and fanatic character. There is a strong propensity for debauchery and sexual perversions. One imposes one's narrow-minded ideas to members of the family, friends, and employees, which arouses much hatred. Sooner or later, slaves are freed, and the despot is overthrown. If in the natal chart, the Moon is waxing and in conjunction with this degree, the constellation of the Pleiades promises high social status, fame, and honours, but it also warns against accidents affecting the face, impaired sight, or violent death.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

Fortune 22°54' Scorpio, in House VII
Part of Fortune

The Part of Fortune is an ancient concept, used by Ptolemy and other astrologers before him. Firstly, it has nothing to do with fortune! In modern astrology, it is actually used to enhance a planet or angle when in close conjunction with it: it thus amplifies the meaning associated to the point affected by its presence. It is calculated in the following way:

Part of Fortune = AS + Moon - Sun (it is the Moons position when the Sun rises)

The classical Part of Fortune, of which the calculus method is unchanged whether in a diurnal or nocturnal chart, is usually distinguished from the diurnal/nocturnal Part of Fortune which is calculated by the formula AS + Sun - Moon for a nocturnal chart, and AS + Moon - Sun in a diurnal chart.

We currently use the latter formula for our astrological programmes.

Interpretation of the 22° Scorpio symbolic degree

"A man sows against the wind." (Janduz version)

Hard-working but stubborn character totally lacking good practical sense. One has too much self-confidence and believes that one knows better than anyone else. Despite repeated failures, one keeps on making the same mistakes and waste a lot of energy and efforts. One must seek advice from wise and experienced people.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

Ascendant 27°47' Aries
Ascendant or House I

The First House or Ascendant represents one's behaviour in the eyes of others, and also one's health. It corresponds to the way the individual acts in the world. It is the image of the personality seen by others and the person's visible behaviour expressed outwardly. The 1st House is in analogy with Aries and thus Mars too, and then the Sun. It is an angular house, the most important one with the Midheaven, maybe even more so due to its link with the body and health.

Ascendant in Aries

You express your vital energy in a very cut and dried way, you do not resist taking the driver’s seat and you may come across as arrogant. Charging ahead also implies hurting yourself and being suddenly overcome by doubt. As a result, your courage, your honesty, your enthusiasm and your straightforwardness may turn into aggressiveness, rebellion and vulnerability that no one ever suspected. Fortunately, the level of your energy is very high and your instinctive and pugnacious side will not leave you helpless for too long and will set you back on the often perilous road to conquest and glory.

With this Ascendant, you come across as courageous, enthusiastic, dynamic, quick, extroverted, direct, warm, impulsive, adventurous, bold, and competitive. But you may also be gullible, dominating, self-centered, impatient, foolish, thoughtless, childish, irascible, reckless, primary, with a foot in mouth disease.

Interpretation of the 27° Aries symbolic degree

"A fair-haired woman, lavishly dressed and standing alone, opens her arms in a welcoming gesture." (Janduz version)

Exuberant, gifted, and benevolent character. One is generous and has numerous talents, which attracts many friends who reciprocate one's kindness and provide wise pieces of advice. A female figure plays an instrumental role in one's career. She may be a powerful protector or a wealthy spouse. Success can be achieved in all occupations dealing with wool and woollen goods.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

Midheaven 14°06' Capricorn
Midheaven or House X

The Tenth House still called the Midheaven, is the highest point amidst the houses, at the top of the chart, in the South, and relates to destiny in general and career (and not daily work as meant by the Sixth House). The Midheaven represents our achievements and goals in the social sphere, our social position in society, and becomes more and more important as we get older. It is in analogy with Capricorn and Saturn. The Tenth House is the most important angular house along with the Ascendant.

Midheaven in Capricorn

Your destiny is commensurate with your nature made of perseverance and patience. Even though you are slow, at the end of the day, you usually find that your status is higher than that of other people. Since Capricorn is the 10th sign of the Zodiac, it is in analogy with the 10th House, the house of career, professional ambition, and public image. Your day of glory comes late, but it endures throughout your old age, which is the most fruitful and fulfilling period of your life.

The following professions are most likely to suit you very well: manager, banker, financier, antiquarian, senior insurance agent, high-level scientist, geologist, speleologist, archaeologist, cultivator, officer, university professor, notary public, solicitor, judge, prison warder, policeman/woman, mechanic, politician, or Minister for Education.

Interpretation of the 14° Capricorn symbolic degree

"A man carrying a sheep on his shoulders stares at a fire burning on a tripod." (Janduz version)

Fiery, shrewd, and ambitious character. Life is most likely to be full of adventures and passion, and marked by a strong attachment to the motherland. One may be involved in political upheavals and play an important role in the history of one's country. Success can be achieved in hunting and all occupations related to animal husbandry and trade, archaeology, war, politics, or law. If the natal chart shows introverted tendencies, this degree describes an intense inner life and a spiritual leader driven by noble ideals.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

Ascendant 27°47' Aries
House I (AC)

The First House or Ascendant represents one's behaviour in the eyes of others and also one's health. It corresponds to the way the individual acts in the world. It is the image of the personality as seen by others and the person's visible behaviour expressed outwardly. The 1st House is in analogy with Aries and thus Mars too and then the Sun. It is an angular house, the most important one with the Midheaven, maybe even more so due to its link with the body and health; the Ascendant is as important as the Sun in a natal chart.

Interpretation of the 27° Aries symbolic degree

"A fair-haired woman, lavishly dressed and standing alone, opens her arms in a welcoming gesture." (Janduz version)

Exuberant, gifted, and benevolent character. One is generous and has numerous talents, which attracts many friends who reciprocate one's kindness and provide wise pieces of advice. A female figure plays an instrumental role in one's career. She may be a powerful protector or a wealthy spouse. Success can be achieved in all occupations dealing with wool and woollen goods.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

House II 1°29' Gemini
House II

The Second House is the sphere of material security, the money we earn, our possessions, also in a symbolic meaning (close people etc). It is in analogy with Taurus and Venus. It is a succedent house, quite important.

House III 24°02' Gemini
House III

The Third House is the sphere of social and intellectual apprenticeship, studies, relationships with close people and surroundings, short trips, light-hearted and quick contacts, correspondences. It is in analogy with Gemini and Mercury. It's a cadent house, less important than the angular and succedent ones.

House IV 14°06' Cancer
House IV (IC)

The Fourth House also called Immum Coeli is the sphere of inner emotions, family, the father, home and roots, but also the home one creates. It's Home Sweet Home, security and cocoon. It is in analogy with Cancer and the Moon. It's an angular and important house.

Interpretation of the 14° Cancer symbolic degree

"Under a canopy, a dog asleep and a rat on the alert lie on a throne." (Janduz version)

Lazy, petty, and nasty character loathing effort. Despite a complete lack of skills, important positions are obtained through low cunning, manipulations, and palace intrigues. This degree often describes a charlatan who conceals his slyness and his meanness under apparent indifference and quietness.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

House V 6°36' Leo
House V

The Fifth House is the sphere of pleasures and love affairs (but not commitment or marriage), creations and entertainments, children, arts and game. It is in analogy with Leo and the Sun. It's a succedent and quite important house.

House VI 8°07' Virgo
House VI

The Sixth House is the sphere of apprenticeship and effort in the work environment, daily life, health on a daily basis and not operations or long-term diseases, relationships with co-workers or subordinates, desire for improvement, analysis and detail. It is in analogy with Virgo and Mercury. It is a cadent house, less important than the angular and succedent ones.

House VII 27°47' Libra
House VII (DS)

The Seventh House also called the Descendant (in front of the Ascendant) is the sphere of partnership, marriage, contracts, relationships with others, the outer world. It is in analogy with Libra and Venus, and Saturn to a lesser extent. It is an angular and important house.

Interpretation of the 27° Libra symbolic degree

"A donkey is tethered to a windmill." (Janduz version)

Submissive, unambitious, and fatalistic character. One is resigned to follow the beaten path and to relegate personal aspirations on the back burner. For instance, one takes on the family business or embraces a career to abide by one's parents' wish instead of focusing on the matters one is really interested in. Artistic activities are a nice source of solace and contribute to counterbalance the dull routine.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

House VIII 1°29' Sagittarius
House VIII

The Eighth House is the sphere of emotional security, the depths of the self, secrets and paranormal, transcendence, sexuality, mysteries, upheavals, surgical operations, others' money (investments, inheritances), crises, transformation after evolution, death. It is in analogy with Scorpio and Pluto, and Mars to a lesser extent. It is a succedent and quite important house.

House IX 24°02' Sagittarius
House IX

The Ninth House is the sphere of high studies, both physical and mental journeys (philosophy, spirituality), rebelliousness, changes of scenery, desire for dealing with the unknown. It is in analogy with Sagittarius and Jupiter. It is a cadent house, less important than the angular and succedent ones.

Midheaven 14°06' Capricorn
House X (MC)

The Tenth House still called the Midheaven, is the highest point amidst the houses, at the top of the chart, in the South, and relates to destiny in general and career (and not daily work as meant by the Sixth House). The Midheaven represents our achievements and goals in the social sphere, our social position in society, and becomes more and more important as we get older. It is in analogy with Capricorn and Saturn. The Tenth House is the most important angular house along with the Ascendant.

Interpretation of the 14° Capricorn symbolic degree

"A man carrying a sheep on his shoulders stares at a fire burning on a tripod." (Janduz version)

Fiery, shrewd, and ambitious character. Life is most likely to be full of adventures and passion, and marked by a strong attachment to the motherland. One may be involved in political upheavals and play an important role in the history of one's country. Success can be achieved in hunting and all occupations related to animal husbandry and trade, archaeology, war, politics, or law. If the natal chart shows introverted tendencies, this degree describes an intense inner life and a spiritual leader driven by noble ideals.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

House XI 6°36' Aquarius
House XI

The Eleventh House is the sphere of friendship and protection, projects, search for social acceptance and security, collective and humanitarian actions. It is in analogy with Aquarius and Uranus, and Saturn to a lesser extent. It's a succedent and quite important house.

House XII 8°07' Pisces
House XII

The Twelfth House is the sphere of hidden things, enemies, closed or remote places (hospital, prison, convent etc.), ordeals, secrecy, solitude, long-term illnesses but also sincere devotion and genuine compassion. It is in analogy with Pisces and Neptune.


Caption
Légende des aspects
Conjunctions
Opposites and Squares
Trines and Sextiles
Semi-Squares and Sesqui-Quadrates
Semi-Sextiles, Quintiles and Bi-Quintiles
Inconjunctions
 
Display and Calculation Parameters
 
  
 
 
 
 
Printing and Sharing Options
 
URL
BBCode
 
 
* A planet less than 1° from the next House cusp is considered to be posited in the said House. 2° when the AS and the MC are involved

Biography of René Girard

René Girard (born December 25, 1923, Avignon, France (birth time source: Diane Servant, email)) is a French historian, literary critic, and philosopher of social science. His work belongs to the tradition of anthropological philosophy. He is the author of several books (see below), in which he developed the following ideas:

1. mimetic desire: imitation is an aspect of behaviour that not only affects learning but also desire, and imitated desire is a cause of conflict,
2. the scapegoat mechanism is the origin of sacrifice and the foundation of human culture, and religion was necessary in human evolution to control the violence that can come from mimetic rivalry,
3. the Bible reveals the two previous ideas and denounces the scapegoat mechanism.

René Girard's writings cover many areas. Although the reception of his work is different in each of these areas, there is a growing body of secondary literature that uses his hypotheses and ideas in the areas of literary criticism, critical theory, anthropology, theology, psychology, mythology, sociology, economics, cultural studies, and philosophy.

Life and career

René Noël Théophile Girard was born in Avignon on December 25, 1923. Between 1943 and 1947, he studied medieval history at the École des Chartes, Paris. The subject of his thesis was "Private life in Avignon in the second half of the fifteenth century" ("La vie privée à Avignon dans la seconde moitié du XVe siècle").

In 1947, Girard went to Indiana University on a one-year fellowship, but eventually pursued most of his career in the United States. The subject of his PhD at Indiana University was "American Opinion of France, 1940-1943". Although his research was in history, he was also assigned to teach French literature, the field in which he would first make his reputation as a literary critic by publishing influential essays on such authors as Albert Camus and Marcel Proust. He received his PhD in 1950 and stayed at Indiana University until 1953. He occupied positions at Duke University and Bryn Mawr College from 1953 to 1957, after which he moved to Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, where he became a full professor in 1961. In that year, he also published his first book: Mensonge romantique et vérité romanesque (Deceit, Desire and the Novel, 1966).

For several years, he moved back and forth between the State University of New York at Buffalo and Johns Hopkins University. The two most important books published in this period are La Violence et le sacré (1972; Violence and the Sacred, 1977) and Des choses cachées depuis la fondation du monde (1978; Things Hidden since the Foundation of the World, 1987).

In 1981 he became Andrew B. Hammond Professor of French Language, Literature, and Civilization at Stanford University, where he stayed until his retirement in 1995. During this period, he published Le Bouc émissaire (1982), La route antique des hommes pervers (1985), A Theatre of Envy: William Shakespeare (1991) and Quand ces choses commenceront ... (1994). In 1990, a group of scholars founded the Colloquium on Violence and Religion (COV&R) with a goal to "explore, criticize, and develop the mimetic model of the relationship between violence and religion in the genesis and maintenance of culture". This organization also organizes a yearly conference devoted to topics related to mimetic theory, scapegoating, violence, and religion. René Girard is Honorary Chair of COV&R. Cofounder and first president of the COV&R was the Roman Catholic theologian Raymund Schwager.

In 1985, he received his first honorary degree at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in the Netherlands; several others followed later. On March 17, 2005, René Girard was elected to the Académie française. He continues publishing articles and books.

His work has inspired interdisciplinary research projects and experimental research such as the Mimetic Theory project sponsored by the John Templeton Foundation.

A more detailed biographical sketch is available in The Girard Reader, edited by James G. Williams.
Girard's thought
Mimetic desire

After almost a decade of teaching French literature in the United States, Girard began to develop a new way of speaking about literary texts. Beyond the "uniqueness" of individual works, he tried to discover their common structural properties after noticing that characters in great fiction evolved in a system of relationships otherwise common to the wider generality of novels. But there was a distinction to be made:

Only the great writers succeed in painting these mechanisms faithfully, without falsifying them: we have here a system of relationships that paradoxically, or rather not paradoxically at all, has less variability the greater a writer is.

So there did indeed exist "psychological laws" as Marcel Proust calls them. These laws and this system are the consequences of a fundamental reality grasped by the novelists, which Girard called the mimetic character of desire. This is the content of his first book, Deceit, Desire and the Novel (1961). We borrow our desires from others. Far from being autonomous, our desire for a certain object is always provoked by the desire of another person — the model — for this same object. This means that the relationship between the subject and the object is not direct: there is always a triangular relationship of subject, model, and object. Through the object, one is drawn to the model, whom Girard calls the mediator: it is in fact the model who is sought. René Girard calls desire "metaphysical" in the measure that, as soon as a desire is something more than a simple need or appetite, "all desire is a desire to be" , it is an aspiration, the dream of a fullness attributed to the mediator.

Mediation is external when the mediator of the desire is socially beyond the reach of the subject or, for example, a fictional character, as in the case of Amadis de Gaula and Don Quixote. The hero lives a kind of folly that nonetheless remains optimistic. Mediation is internal when the mediator is at the same level as the subject. The mediator then transforms into a rival and an obstacle to the acquisition of the object, whose value increases as the rivalry grows. This is the universe of the novels of Stendhal, Flaubert, Proust and Dostoevsky, which are particularly studied in this book.

Through their characters, our own behaviour is displayed. Everyone holds firmly to the illusion of the authenticity of one's own desires; the novelists implacably expose all the diversity of lies, dissimulations, maneuvers, and the snobbery of the Proustian heroes; these are all but "tricks of desire", which prevent one from facing the truth: envy and jealousy. These characters, desiring the being of the mediator, project upon him superhuman virtues while at the same time depreciating themselves, making him a god while making themselves slaves, in the measure that the mediator is an obstacle to them. Some, pursuing this logic, come to seek the failures that are the signs of the proximity of the ideal to which they aspire. This is masochism, which can turn into sadism.

This fundamental focus on mimetic desire would be pursued by René Girard throughout the rest of his career. It is interesting to note that the stress on imitation in humans was not a popular subject when Girard developed his theories, but today there is independent support for his claims coming from empirical research in psychology and neuroscience (see below).

Girard has recently written about positive mimesis found in the Christian tradition of Imitatio Dei or Imitatio Christi.
Violence and the Sacred

Since the mimetic rivalry that develops from the struggle for the possession of the objects is contagious, it leads to the threat of violence. René Girard himself says, "If there is a normal order in societies, it must be the fruit of an anterior crisis." Turning his interest towards the anthropological domain, René Girard began to study anthropological literature and proposed his second great hypothesis: the victimization process, which is at the origin of archaic religion and which he sets forth in his second book Violence and the Sacred (1972).

If two individuals desire the same thing, there will soon be a third, then a fourth. This process quickly snowballs. Since from the beginning the desire is aroused by the other (and not by the object) the object is soon forgotten and the mimetic conflict transforms into a general antagonism. At this stage of the crisis the antagonists will no longer imitate each other's desires for an object, but each other's antagonism. They wanted to share the same object, but now they want to destroy the same enemy. So, a paroxysm of violence would tend to focus on an arbitrary victim and a unanimous antipathy would, mimetically, grow against him. The brutal elimination of the victim would reduce the appetite for violence that possessed everyone a moment before, and leaves the group suddenly appeased and calm. The victim lies before the group, appearing simultaneously as the origin of the crisis and as the one responsible for this miracle of renewed peace. He becomes sacred, that is to say the bearer of the prodigious power of defusing the crisis and bringing peace back. René Girard believes this to be the genesis of archaic religion, of ritual sacrifice as the repetition of the original event, of myth as an account of this event, of the taboos that forbid access to all the objects at the origin of the rivalries that degenerated into this absolutely traumatizing crisis. This religious elaboration takes place gradually over the course of the repetition of the mimetic crises whose resolution brings only a temporary peace. The elaboration of the rites and of the taboos constitutes a kind of empirical knowledge about violence.

Although explorers and anthropologists have not been able to witness events similar to these, which go back to the earliest times, indirect evidence for them abounds, such as the universality of ritual sacrifice and the innumerable myths that have been collected from the most varied peoples. If Girard's theory is true, then we will find in myths the culpability of the victim-god, depictions of the selection of the victim, and his power to beget the order that governs the group. And René Girard found these elements in numerous myths, beginning with that of Oedipus, which he analyzed in this and later books. On this question he opposes Claude Lévi-Strauss.

The phrase "scapegoat mechanism" was not coined by Girard himself; it had been used earlier by Kenneth Burke in Permanence and Change (1935) and A Grammar of Motives (1940). However, Girard took this concept from Burke and developed it much more extensively as an interpretation of human culture.

In Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World (1978), Girard develops the implications of this discovery. The victimary process is the missing link between the animal world and the human world, the principle that explains the humanization of primates. It allows us to understand the need for sacrificial victims, which in turn explains the hunt which is primitively ritual, and the domestication of animals as a fortuitous result of the acclimatization of a reserve of victims, or agriculture. It shows that at the beginning of all culture is archaic religion, which Durkheim had sensed. The elaboration of the rites and taboos by proto-human or human groups would take infinitely varied forms while obeying a rigorous practical sense that we can detect: the prevention of the return of the mimetic crisis. So we can find in archaic religion the origin of all political or cultural institutions.

According to Girard, just as the theory of Natural selection of species is the rational principle that explains the immense diversity of forms of life, the victimization process is the rational principle that explains the origin of the infinite diversity of cultural forms. The analogy with Darwin also extends to the scientific status of the theory, as each of these presents itself as a hypothesis that is not capable of being proven experimentally, given the extreme amounts of time necessary to the production of the phenomena in question, but which imposes itself by its great explanatory power.
The origin of language

According to René Girard, the origin of language is also related to scapegoating. After the first victim, after the murder of the first scapegoat, there were the first prohibitions and rituals, but these came into being before representation and language, hence before culture. And that means that "people" (perhaps not human beings) "will not start fighting again". René Girard says:

If mimetic disruption comes back, our instinct will tell us to do again what the sacred has done to save us, which is to kill the scapegoat. Therefore it would be the force of substitution of immolating another victim instead of the first. But the relationship of this process with representation is not one that can be defined in a clear-cut way. This process would be one that moves towards representation of the sacred, towards definition of the ritual as ritual and prohibition as prohibition. But this process would already begin prior the representation, you see, because it is directly produced by the experience of the misunderstood scapegoat.

According to Girard, the substitution of an immolated victim for the first, is "the very first symbolic sign created by the hominids". Girard also says this is the first time that one thing represents another thing, standing in the place of this (absent) one. This substitution is the beginning of representation and language, but also the beginning of sacrifice and ritual. The genesis of language and ritual is very slow and we must imagine that there are also kinds of rituals among the animals: "It is the originary scapegoating which prolongs itself in a process which can be infinitely long in moving from, how should I say, from instinctive ritualization, instinctive prohibition, instinctive separation of the antagonists, which you already find to a certain extent in animals, towards representation."

Unlike Eric Gans, Girard does not think that there is an original scene during which there is "a sudden shift from non-representation to representation", or a sudden shift from animality to humanity. According to the French sociologist Camille Tarot, it is hard to understand how the process of representation (symbolicity, language...) actually occurs and he has called this a black box in René Girard's theory.

René Girard also says:

One great characteristic of man is what they call neoteny, the fact that the human infant is born premature, with an open skull, no hair and a total inability to fend for himself. To keep it alive, therefore, there must be some form of cultural protection, because in the world of mammals, such infants would not survive, they would be destroyed. Therefore there is a reason to believe that in the later stages of human evolution, culture and nature are in constant interaction. The first stages of this interaction must occur prior to language, but they must include forms of sacrifice and prohibition that create a space of non-violence around the mother and the children which make it possible to reach still higher stages of human development. You can postulate as many such stages as are needed. Thus, you can have a transition between ethology and anthropology which removes, I think, all philosophical postulates. The discontinuities would never be of such a nature as to demand some kind of sudden intellectual illumination.

Judeo-Christian scriptures
Biblical text as a science of man

In Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World, René Girard discusses for the first time Christianity and the Bible. The Gospels ostensibly present themselves as a typical mythical account, with a victim-god lynched by a unanimous crowd, an event that is then commemorated by Christians through ritual sacrifice — a bodily re-presentation in this case — in the Eucharist. The parallel is perfect except for one detail: the truth of the innocence of the victim is proclaimed by the text and the writer. The mythical account is usually built on the lie of the guilt of the victim inasmuch as it is an account of the event seen from the viewpoint of the anonymous lynchers. This ignorance is indispensable to the efficacy of the sacrificial violence.

The evangelical "good news" clearly affirms the innocence of the victim, thus becoming, by attacking ignorance, the germ of the destruction of the sacrificial order on which rests the equilibrium of societies. Already the Old Testament shows this turning inside-out of the mythic accounts with regard to the innocence of the victims (Abel, Joseph, Job, ...), and the Hebrews were conscious of the uniqueness of their religious tradition. With the Gospels, it is with full clarity that are unveiled these "things hidden since the foundation of the world" (Matthew 13:35), the foundation of social order on murder, described in all its repulsive ugliness in the account of the Passion.

This revelation is even clearer because the text is a work on desire and violence, from the serpent setting alight the desire of Eve in paradise to the prodigious strength of the mimetism that brings about the denial of Peter during the Passion (Mark 14: 66-72; Luke 22:54-62). Girard reinterprets certain biblical expressions in light of his theories; for instance, he sees "scandal" (skandalon, literally, a "snare", or an "impediment placed in the way and causing one to stumble or fall") as signifying mimetic rivalry, for example Peter's denial of Jesus. No one escapes responsibility, neither the envious nor the envied: "Woe to the man through whom scandal comes" (Matthew 18:7).
Christian society

The evangelical revelation contains the truth on the violence, available for two thousand years, René Girard tells us. Has it put an end to the sacrificial order based on violence in the society that has claimed the gospel text as its own religious text? No, he replies, since in order for a truth to have an impact it must find a receptive listener, and people do not change that quickly. The gospel text has instead acted as a ferment that brings about the decomposition of the sacrificial order. While medieval Europe showed the face of a sacrificial society that still knew very well how to despise and ignore its victims, nonetheless the efficacy of sacrificial violence has never stopped decreasing, in the measure that ignorance receded. Here René Girard sees the principle of the uniqueness and of the transformations of the Western society whose destiny today is one with that of human society as a whole.

Does the retreat of the sacrificial order mean less violence? Not at all; rather, it deprives modern societies of most of the capacity of sacrificial violence to establish temporary order. The "innocence" of the time of the ignorance is no more. On the other hand, Christianity, following the example of Judaism, has desacralized the world, making possible a utilitarian relationship with nature. Increasingly threatened by the resurgence of mimetic crises on a grand scale, the contemporary world is on one hand more quickly caught up by its guilt, and on the other hand has developed such a great technical power of destruction that it is condemned to both more and more responsibility and less and less innocence. So, for example, while empathy for victims manifests progress in the moral conscience of society, it nonetheless also takes the form of a competition among victims that threatens an escalation of violence.
Reception and criticism
Older discussions of mimetic desire

René Girard often wrote that writers were the first to articulate the concept of mimetic desire. Stéphane Vinolo writes that some philosophers also expressed the concept. He quotes Baruch Spinoza in his Ethics (Part. III Prop. XXVII):

By the very fact that we conceive a thing, which is like ourselves, and which we have not regarded with any emotion, to be affected with any emotion, we are ourselves affected with a like emotion. If we conceive anyone similar to ourselves as affected by any emotion, this conception will express of our body similar to that emotion.

Vinolo also quotes Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan: "From this equality of ability, arose equality of hope in the attaining of our ends. And therefore if any two men desire the same thing, which nevertheless cannot both enjoy, they become enemies..." Wolfgang Palaver wrote about Alexis de Tocqueville: "Two hundred years after Hobbes, the French historian Alexis de Tocqueville mentioned the dangers coming along with equality, too. Like Hobbes, he refers to the increase of mimetic desire coming along with equality. And he quoted Tocqueville's Democracy in America:

When all the privileges of birth and fortune are abolished, when all professions are accessible to all, and a man's own energies may place him at the top of any one of them, an easy and unbound career seems open to his ambition and he will readily persuade himself that he is borne to no common destinies. But this is an erroneous notion, which is corrected by daily experience. The same equality that allows every citizen to conceive these lofty hopes renders all the citizens less able to realize them; it circumscribes their powers on every side, while it gives freer scope to their desires. Not only are they themselves powerless, but they are met at every step by immense obstacles, which they did not first perceive. They have swept away the privileges of some of their fellow creatures which stood in their way, but they have opened the door to universal competition; the barrier has changed its shape rather than its position.

In this case René Girard is absolutely aware of his intellectual debt to Tocqueville. Taking the Montréal Massacre as a starting point, Palaver questions the origin of contemporary human violence:

Girard's mimetic theory helps us to explain the rise of violence in egalitarian and competitive societies. The more our pride and ambition forces us to be foremost the more likely it becomes that we will be defeated. Trying to be ahead of all the others forces us to turn them all into our rivals. We are never satisfied as long as there is anyone in front of us. Mimetic rivalry leads us to run those races which we cannot win and directs us towards insurmountable obstacles. The more we try to succeed the more we will increase the resistance against our claim. Resistance soon becomes the object of our quest itself and will lead to an idolization of violence. If only those objects are worth to fight for which we cannot get, we are easily led to the fatal conclusion that violence is the true God of the world. We seek defeat because it brings us closer to this God and we will also use violence ourselves because by imitating this God we hope we soon can become his equal. Mimetic desire has a tendency to fetishize violence and it would not be wrong to conclude that all anthropological and philosophical theories that result in an ontology of violence - like Hegel dialectics - are in fact worshiping this false God.

This explanation leads back to literature and to Fyodor Dostoyevsky's The Brothers Karamazov as Girard interpreted it.
Beneficial imitation

Another source of contention is Girard's seeming to have left no role for beneficial imitation. Rebecca Adams argues that because Girard's theories fixate on violence, he creates a 'scapegoat' himself with his own theory: the scapegoat of positive mimesis. Adams proposes a reassessment of Girard's theory that includes an account of loving mimesis or, as she prefers to call it, creative mimesis. Some say there is also a good mimesis in the thought of Girard, for instance the imitation of Jesus. Another possible instance is the imitation of the "external mediation" when the model is "far" from me as, for instance, Amadis in Cervantes's Don Quixote. In this last case, it is not a "good" imitation, but some "Girardians" point out the positive aspects of external mediation. Jean-Michel Oughourlian takes the example of the imitation of a politician: "The imitation can be totally peaceful and beneficial; I don't believe that I am the other, I don't want to take his place This imitation can lead me to become sensitive to the social and political problems..." It is also possible to quote this sentence from a short presentation of Girard's theory: "(...) Young children imitate their teachers as closely as possible and are even encouraged to do so, but within an educational frame that maintains a certain distance between subject and model, prohibiting confusion. If many little girls want to become schoolmistress, it is later, and all is in this 'later'."
Place in the anthropological tradition

The accurate relationship of Girard's thought with both Christian faith and science is hard to explain. In Des choses cachées depuis la fondation du monde Girard wrote: "The authentic knowledge about violence and all its works to be found in the Gospels cannot be the result of human action alone." A few years later, Belgian anthropologist Luc de Heusch, reacted violently in Le Monde with an article entitled "L'Evangile selon Saint-Girard" ("The Gospel according to Saint Girard"). De Heusch, who is an agnostic, stated that Girard's thought was not anthropology but metaphysics. In Quand les choses commenceront (1994) René Girard wrote: "Jean-Marie Domenach thinks that I am trying to give a scientific demonstration of faith. I know that a demonstration of faith is impossible, but faith is not alone. There is also the understanding, and the great Christian tradition had always been saying that there is a deep agreement between faith and understanding. That's this agreement I am trying to define."

According to Charles K. Bellinger, Girard provides a "secular account of the origin of religion among primitive people." In Les origines de la culture (2004), Pierpaolo Antonello and Joao Cezar de Castro Rocha say: "Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World is a theory of the hominisation and of the origin of culture in a naturalistic framework, firstly in combining ethnology and anthropology", and Girard answers immediately without rejecting this presentation of his thought.

In 2008, Camille Tarot wrote: "Girard's Christian faith affects theology and the social sciences in different ways. François Lagarde spoke of a 'christianisation' of the social sciences. People might have expected that the theologians would denounce the 'anthropologisation' of the theology and thus a 'humanisation' of Christianity. It is astonishing that nobody has done this." In fact, Tarot is wrong: Father Valandier, the Director of the review Etudes (a journal started by Jesuits), is very critical of Girard because of this confusion between science and Christianity or between science and faith. According to Jean Greisch (with many nuances), Girard's thought is more or less a kind of Gnosis.

In an article published in September 2008 Lucien Scubla claimed that René Girard's work finds its place in the tradition of great anthropologists such as Sigmund Freud, Arthur Maurice Hocart, Henri Hubert, Marcel Mauss, and Robertson Smith, who all pointed out the importance of sacrifice at the origin of humanity. Girard also works in the tradition of Émile Durkheim, who pointed out the absolute link between religion and society. For Scubla, Girard gathered many elements of all these authors and combined them into an original synthesis based on the scapegoating phenomenon. Scubla states that Girard's thought is the "first radically agnostic theory of religion" and "includes all these theories into a simpler and broader system overtakes the domain of religion".

René Girard is a Catholic, but the epistemological status of his theory is disputed both by atheist or agnostic people (in favour or not) and by Catholic or Christian people (in favour or not).
The Bible and myth

In Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World Girard states that he is not ashamed of Old Testament texts that mystify violence and analyzes many of the more important books of the Old Testament. The Old Testament is very important for his theory. One should also add that Girard does not disregard the non-violent aspects of non-Christian religions. His defence of Christianity has nothing to do with the idea of "non-violence". Girard stresses that Christianity does not promise peace but promises truth. According to Girard, it de-mystifies the "peace of the world". All religions, he says, even the most violent ones, are aimed toward peace. Archaic societies ritually repeat the scapegoat solution to make peace. When discussing the established historical structures of Christianity in Things Hidden though, he presents it as a struggle between the ingrained sacrificial order inherent in human culture as we know it and the repudiation of mimetic fighting and indeed of cultural endeavour presented in the New Testament. The churches and historical Christianity and their teaching, according to this reasoning, have partly disarmed the insight of the gospels for nearly two thousand years, but at the same time, by spreading the Word to the ends of the earth and undoing earlier sacrificial religions the churches have paved the way for a final wave of revelation and of the coming together of humanity.

Out of this eschatological perspective on history and on the role of the church, Girard is scathingly critical of secular humanism and liberal values, which he describes as cheap attempts to expand a cultural freedom no longer threatened by any institutions, least of all by the churches, and a dangerous over-confidence in the ability of mankind to save herself through (mimetic) effort.

One of the main sources of criticism of Girard's work comes from intellectuals who claim that his comparison of Judeo-Christian texts vis-a-vis other religions leaves something to be desired.
Psychology and neuroscience

René Girard's work is also attracting increasing interest from empirical researchers investigating human imitation (among them Andrew Meltzoff and Vittorio Gallese). Girard's views on imitation (developed decades before empirical research prompted a resurgence of interest in the matter) resonate with the most recent findings. Recently, empirical studies into the mechanism of desire have suggested some intriguing correlations with Girard's theory on the subject. For instance, clinical psychologist Scott R. Garrels wrote:

What makes Girard's insights so remarkable is that he not only discovered and developed the primordial role of psychological mimesis (...) during a time when imitation was quite out of fashion, but he did so through investigation in literature, cultural anthropology, history, and ultimately returning to religious texts for further evidence of mimetic phenomena. The parallels between Girard's insights and the only recent conclusions made by empirical researchers concerning imitation (in both development and the evolution of species) are extraordinary (...).

Economics and globalization

The mimetic theory has also been applied in the study of economics, most notably in La violence de la monnaie (1982) by Michel Aglietta and André Orléan. Orléan was also a contributor to the volume René Girard in Les cahiers de l'Herne ("Pour une approche girardienne de l'homo oeconomicus") . According to the philosopher of technology Andrew Feenberg:

In La violence de la monnaie, Aglietta and Orléan follow Girard in suggesting that the basic relation of exchange can be interpreted as a conflict of 'doubles', each mediating the desire of the Other. Like Henri Goldmann, they see a connection between Girard's theory of mimetic desire and the Marxian theory of commodity fetishism. In their theory, the market takes the place of the sacred in modern life as the chief institutional mechanism stabilizing the otherwise explosive conflicts of desiring subjects.

In an interview with the Unesco Courier, anthropologist and social theorist Mark Anspach (editor of the René Girard issue of Les Cahiers de l'Herne) explains that Aglietta and Orléan (who were very critical about the economic rationality) argue that the classical theory of economics as a myth:

The economists' myth tells us that exchange fulfills a simple instrumental function. You live in a community that produces yams and I live in a community that raises pigs, so we invent a system of equivalence between our products - money - and there you have it. But, as anthropologists have shown us, Marcel Mauss in particular, the main form of exchange in so-called 'primitive' societies is the gift, which cannot be reduced to economic rationality.

According to Anspach, the actual justification of exchange is in reality ... exchange, the desire of a relationship with other men and women. In order to reach the peaceful reciprocity on which humanity is based as against the reciprocity of what Girard calls mimetic rivalry, the latter is overtaken by the sacrifice - representing the end of the vicious circle of violence and vengeance and the beginning of gift economy: "Instead of waiting for your neighbour to come steal your yams, you offer them to him today, and it is up to him to do the same for you tomorrow. Once you have made a gift, he is obliged to make a return gift. Now you have set in motion a positive circularity." But the gift may be dangerous; it may be a so huge gift (as in potlach) that it humiliates the other: you may want, firstly, to display your prestige, to present yourself as better, richer, or stronger. The "economic rationality", however, tends to liberate the seller and the buyer of any other obligations than to give money. Reciprocal violence is eliminated by the sacrifice, obligations of vengeance by the gift, and finally the possibly dangerous gift by "economic rationality". This rationality, however, creates new victims, as for instance so many children dying of hunger every day. When a plane crashes and several hundred people are killed, there is an inquiry. But there is no inquiry about hunger: the market is guilty:

Nobody is individually responsible for a violence which is collectively accepted, just as the violence of sacrifice is collectively accepted Globalization means the development of market exchange among the nations. Now, despite the existence of the United Nations, the international arena still displays one of the essential features of primitive society: the absence of State I am skeptical about the idea that an expansion of international trade leads to peace. The same idea was expressed the last time a comparable level of economic integration between countries was reached, early in the last century. And then the First World War came along and dispelled the illusion.

Anspach also quotes Ahmet İnsel's estimation of the gift economy (families, non-profit organisations etcetera) as approximately three-quarters of the French GDP. He makes an interesting comparison between Adam Smith's "invisible hand" and the gods behind the ejected violence into the rituals. A similar comparison has been made by the economist John Grahl in the paper Money as Sovereignty: the Economics of Michel Aglietta:

In primitive society, institutionalised by ritual and sacrifice, there is no real money because desires for being are focused not on things but directly on other persons and their conduct. In a second era the monarch or sovereign emerges as a more stable institutionalised representative of the sacred excluded/elected victim: here money has a secondary status as reflecting the monarch and his sacred prerogatives. Finally in mercantile society, with the kind of long-distance exchange relations explored by Braudel (1979), money escapes the control of the sovereign and becomes in itself the primary embodiment of wealth.

Grahl Aglietta and Orléan's interpretation of Girard presents analogies with Hobbesian politics, as sovereignty (a recognised monetary system) emerges to regulate unlimited struggle to seize wealth (accaparement). By diverting desire onto an object excluded from everyday production and consumption, the monetary order permits the embrace of a host of lesser, profane objects shielded from acute rivalry.

The analogy is clear: speculation, as uncontrolled imitative rivalry in the search for authentic wealth, is the violence which menaces modern economies; but it is this speculation itself, when it becomes the unanimous pursuit of a single asset, which gives rise to the monetary order; the latter may then be able to cool speculative passions and divert them into the production of profane, non-monetary goods.

The key difference with Hobbes is that the idea of a social covenant is seen from a Girardian point of view as a typical obfuscation of the true, violent origins of social order - peace and stability emerging from the bellum omnium contra omnes - through the coalescence of enmity onto a sacralised victim.
Honours and awards

* Honorary degrees at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (the Netherlands, 1985), UFSIA in Antwerp (Belgium, 1995), the Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy, 2001, honorary degree in "Arts"), the faculty of theology at the University of Innsbruck (Austria), the Université de Montréal (Canada, 2004), and the University of St Andrews (UK, 2008).
* The Prix Médicis essai for Shakespeare, les feux de l'envie (A Theatre of Envy: William Shakespeare, 1991)
* The prix Aujourd'hui for Les origines de la culture (2004)
* Guggenheim Fellow (1959 and 1966)
* Election to the Académie française (2005).

Bibliography

This section only lists book-length publications that René Girard wrote or edited. For articles and interviews by René Girard, the reader can refer to the database maintained at the University of Innsbruck. Some of the books below reprint articles (To Double Business Bound, 1978; Oedipus Unbound, 2004; Mimesis and Theory,2008) or are based on articles (A Theatre of Envy, 1991).

* 1961. Mensonge romantique et vérité romanesque. Paris: Grasset. Reprinted 2001: ISBN 2246040728. (English translation: Deceit, Desire and the Novel: Self and Other in Literary Structure. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966. ISBN 0801818303).
* 1962. Proust: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
* 1963. Dostoïevski, du double à l'unité. Paris: Plon. (English translation: Resurrection from the Underground: Feodor Dostoevsky. Crossroad Publishing Company. 1997)
* 1972. La Violence et le Sacré. Paris: Grasset. ISBN 978-2246000518. (English translation: Violence and the Sacred. Translated by Patrick Gregory. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977. ISBN 0801822181.) The reprint in the Pluriel series (1996; ISBN 2010089847) contains a section entitled "Critiques et commentaires", which reproduces several reviews of La Violence et le Sacré.
* 1976. Critique dans un souterrain. Lausanne: L'Age d'Homme. Reprint 1983, Livre de Poche: ISBN 978-2253032984. This book contains Dostoïevski, du double à l'unité and a number of other essays published between 1963 and 1972.
* 1978. To Double Business Bound: Essays on Literature, Mimesis, and Anthropology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0801836558. This book contains essays from Critique dans un souterrain but not those on Dostoyevski.
* 1978. Des choses cachées depuis la fondation du monde. Paris: Grasset. ISBN 224661841X. (English translation: Things Hidden since the Foundation of the World: Research undertaken in collaboration with J.-M. Oughourlian and G. Lefort. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987)
* 1982. Le Bouc émissaire. Paris: Grasset. ISBN 2246267811. (English translation: The Scapegoat. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986)
* 1985. La Route antique des hommes pervers. Paris: Grasset. ISBN 2246351111. (English translation: Job, the Victim of His People. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987)
* 1988. Violent Origins: Walter Burkert, Rene Girard, and Jonathan Z. Smith on Ritual Killing and Cultural Formation. Ed. by Robert Hamerton-Kelly. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804715181.
* 1991. A Theatre of Envy: William Shakespeare. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195053397. The French translation, Shakespeare : les feux de l'envie, was published before the original English text.
* 1994. Quand ces choses commenceront ... Entretiens avec Michel Treguer. Paris: arléa. ISBN 2869593007.
* 1996. The Girard Reader. Ed. by. James G. Williams. New York: Crossroad. ISBN 0824516346.
* 1999. Je vois Satan tomber comme l'éclair. Paris: Grasset. ISBN 2246267919. (English translation: I See Satan Fall Like Lightning. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 2001)
* 2000. Um Longo Argumento do princípio ao Fim: Diálogos com João Cezar de Castro Rocha e Pierpaolo Antonello. Rio de Janeiro: Topbooks. ISBN 8574750204. (French translation: Les origines de la culture. Entretiens avec Pierpaolo Antonello et João Cezar de Castro Rocha. Paris: Desclée de Brouwer, 2004. ISBN 978-2220053554. The French translation was upgraded in consultation with René Girard. English translation: Evolution and Conversion: Dialogues on the Origins of Culture. London: Continuum, 2008. ISBN 978-0567032522.)
* 2001. Celui par qui le scandale arrive: Entretiens avec Maria Stella Barberi. Paris: Desclée de Brouwer. ISBN 978-2220050119.
* 2002. La Voix méconnue du réel: Une théorie des mythes archaïques et modernes. Paris: Grasset. ISBN 978-2246611011.
* 2003. Le sacrifice. Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France. ISBN 978-2717722635.
* 2004. Oedipus Unbound: Selected Writings on Rivalry and Desire. Ed. by Mark R. Anspach. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0804747806.
* 2006. Verità o fede debole. Dialogo su cristianesimo e relativismo. With Gianni Vattimo. (English: Truth or Weak Faith. Dialogue about Christianity and Relativism. With Gianni Vattimo. A cura di P. Antonello, Transeuropa Edizioni, Massa. ISBN 9788875800185
* 2007. Dieu, une invention? Editions de l'Atelier. With André Gounelle and Alain Houziaux. ISBN 978-2708239227.
* 2007. Le Tragique et la Pitié: Discours de réception de René Girard à l'Académie française et réponse de Michel Serres. Editions le Pommier. ISBN 978-2746503205.
* 2007. De la violence à la divinité. Paris: Grasset. (Contains Mensonge romantique et vérité romanesque, La violence et le Sacré, Des choses cachées depuis la fondation du monde and Le bouc émissaire, with a new general introduction). ISBN 978-2246721116.
* 2007. Achever Clausewitz. (Entretiens avec Benoît Chantre) Ed. by Carnets Nord. Paris. ISBN 978-2-35536-002-2.
* 2008. Anorexie et désir mimétique. Paris: L'Herne. ISBN 978-2851978639.
* 2008. Mimesis and Theory: Essays on Literature and Criticism, 1953-2005. Ed. by Robert Doran. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0804755801. This book brings together twenty essays on literature and literary theory.
* 2008. La Conversion de l'art. Paris: Carnets Nord. (Book with DVD Le Sens de l'histoire, a conversation with Benoît Chantre) ISBN 978-2355360169.

See also

* American philosophy
* List of American philosophers

Notes and references

1. ^ Noël is also French for "Christmas", the day on which René Girard was born.
2. ^ a b An excerpt from this thesis was reprinted in the René Girard issue of Les Cahiers de l'Herne (2008).
3. ^ 'The rationale for and goals of "The Bulletin of the Colloquium on Violence & Religion"' COV&R-Bulletin No. 1 (September 1991)
4. ^ "Constitution and By-Laws of the Colloquium on Violence and Religion" COV&R-Bulletin No. 6 (March 1994)
5. ^ Imitation, Mimetic Theory, and Religions and Cultural Evolution - A Templeton Advanced Research Program.
6. ^ James G. Williams: "René Girard: A Biographical Sketch". The Girard Reader, ed. James G. Williams. New York: Crossroad, 1996, p. 1-6. See also René Girard: A Biographical Sketch.
7. ^ Quand ces choses commenceront..." (1994): p. 32.
8. ^ For example in Time Regained (Le Temps retrouvé, volume 7 of Remembrance of Things Past): "It is the feeling for the general in the potential writer, which selects material suitable to a work of art because of its generality. He only pays attention to others, however dull and tiresome, because in repeating what their kind say like parrots, they are for that very reason prophetic birds, spokesmen of a psychological law." In French: "(...)c'est le sentiment du général qui dans l'écrivain futur choisit lui-même ce qui est général et pourra entrer dans l'œuvre d'art. Car il n'a écouté les autres que quand, si bêtes ou si fous qu'ils fussent, répétant comme des perroquets ce que disent les gens de caractère semblable, ils s'étaient faits par là même les oiseaux prophètes, les porte-paroles d'une loi psychologique."
9. ^ Quand ces choses commenceront, p28
10. ^ Quand ces choses commenceront p29
11. ^ a b c d e Markus Müller, Interview with René Girard, Anthropoetics II, no. 1 (June 1996) consulted November 2008.
12. ^ René Girard, Les origines de la culture, Desclée de Brouwer, Paris, 2004, p.157 ISBN 2-220-05355-5. We translate the French sentence le "premier signe symbolique jamais inventé par les hominidés": "jamais" in the context means "absolutely the first".
13. ^ Camille Tarot, Le symbolique et le sacré. Paris: La Découverte, 2008, p.860
14. ^ Skandalon in The New Testament Greek Lexicon.
15. ^ See also René Girard: "Are the Gospels Mythical?". First Things (April 1996).
16. ^ See for instance, René Girard, Mensonge romantique et vérité romanesque, Grasset, Paris, 1961, p. 23: "Only the novelists revealed the desire's mimetic nature.
17. ^ Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata Part. III Prop. XXVII : "Ex eo, quod rem nobis similem, et quam nullo affectu prosecuti sumus, aliquo affecti imaginamur, eo ipso simili affectu afficimur" quoted by Stéphane Vinolo, René Girard: du mimétisme à l'hominisation, L'Harmattan, Paris, 2005, p. 20 ISBN 2-7475-9047-X. English translation H. M. Elwes's 1883 English translation THE ETHICS - PART III On the Origin and Nature of the Emotions
18. ^ H. M. Elwes's 1883 English translation THE ETHICS - PART III On the Origin and Nature of the Emotions
19. ^ Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, I,13, World's classic, Oxford University Press, 1996, p. 83. Quoted by S.Vinolo in S.Vinolo René Girard: du mimétisme à l'hominisation, pp. 33-34
20. ^ Wolfgang Palaver: De la violence: une approche mimétique Traduit de l´anglais par Paul Dumouchel. In Paul Dumouchel (Directeur), Comprendre pour agir: violences, victimes et vengeances. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2000, pp. 89–110. ISBN 2763777716 English version
21. ^ A. de Tocqueville: De la démocratie en Amérique, II, 2, chapitre 13, Editions Robert Laffont, Paris, 1986, p. 522. English translation : Tocqueville, Alexis de. 1990. Democracy in America Ed. by. P. Bradley. Vol. II. New York: Vintage Books, p. 137
22. ^ René Girard. 1965. Deceit, Desire and the Novel: Self and Other in Literary Structure Translated by Y. Freccero, The Johns Hopkins University Press,Baltimore, 1965 p. 120
23. ^ Wolfgang Palaver: De la violence: une approche mimétique English version
24. ^ Rebecca Adams (2000). "Loving Mimesis and Girard's "Scapegoat of the Text": A Creative Reassessment of Mimetic Desire" (PDF). Pandora Press U.S.. http://web.ustpaul.uottawa.ca/covr2006/Document/RebeccaGirard.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-09.
25. ^ Jean-Michel Oughourlian: Genèse du désir. Paris: Carnets Nord, 2007, ISBN 978-2-35536-009-9. The French sentence goes: "L'imitation peut alors demeurer entièrement paisible et bénéfique; je ne me prends pas pour l'autre, je ne veux pas prendre sa place Cette imitation me conduira peut-être à me sensibiliser aux problèmes sociaux et politiques...
26. ^ Philippe Cottet: The mimetic desire. French: "De même les jeunes enfants imitent au plus près leurs éducateurs, on les y encourage même, mais à l'intérieur d'un cadre pédagogique qui maintient une certaine distance entre sujet et modèle, interdisant la confusion. Si beaucoup de petites filles veulent devenir maîtresses d'école, c'est plus tard, et tout est dans ce 'plus tard'." (Le désir mimétique)
27. ^ Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World. Translated by Stephen Bann, Michael Leigh Metteer. Continuum, 1987, p. 219. The French text reads: "Le fait qu'un savoir authentique de la violence et de ses œuvres soit enfermé dans les Évangiles ne peut pas être d'origine simplement humaine." (Des choses cachées depuis la fondation du monde. Paris: Grasset, 1978, p. 242)
28. ^ Luc de Heusch: "L'Evangile selon Saint-Girard" Le Monde, 25 June 1982, p. 19.
29. ^ French: "Jean-Marie Domenach pense que je cherche à démontrer scientifiquement la foi. Je sais que la foi est indémontrable, mais elle n'est pas seule. Il y a aussi l'intelligence, et la grande tradition chrétienne a toujours affirmé un accord fondamental entre la foi et l'intelligence. C'est cet accord que je cherche à définir" (Quand ces choses commenceront. Entretiens avec Michel Tréguer, Paris: Arléa, 1994 p. 160 ISBN 2-86959-200-0
30. ^ Charles K. Bellinger: "The Crowd is Untruth: a Comparison of Kierkegaard and Girard" Contagion: A Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture 3 (1996): 103-119.
31. ^ René Girard: Les origines de la culture. Entretiens avec Pierpaolo Antonello and Joao Cezar de Castro Rocha, Paris: Desclée de Brouwer, 2004, p. 144.
32. ^ Camille Tarot: La symbolique et le sacré, p. 651. French "Le christianisme de Girard concerne différemment la théologie et les sciences sociales. Lagarde a parlé de 'christianisation' de celles-ci. On aurait pu s'attendre à ce que les théologiens dénoncent une 'anthropologisation', de la théologie et donc une 'humanisation' du christianisme."
33. ^ Paul Valadier: "René Girard revisité" in Etudes August-September 1982 pp. 251-260
34. ^ Jean Greisch "Une anthropologie fondamentale du rite: René Girard." in Le rite. Philosophie Institut catholique de Paris, présentation de Jean Greisch. Paris, Beauchesne, 1981.
35. ^ French: "la première théorie rigoureusement agnostique de la religion", "Ni variante ni récapitulation des théories passées, elle les rassemble dans un système à la fois plus simple et plus large dépasse le domaine du religieux" Lucien Scubla, "René Girard ou la renaissance de l'anthropologie religieuse" in René Girard, Cahiers de l'Herne. Paris: L'Herne, 2008 pp.105-109, p. 109 ISBN 978-2-85197-152-4
36. ^ E.g. see the criticisms in Violence and Truth: On the Work of Rene Girard, Paul Dumouchel ed., Stanford University Press, 1988
37. ^ Scott R. Garrels: Imitation, Mirror Neurons, & Mimetic Desire: Convergent Support for the Work of Rene Girard, 1 May 2004, p. 29 (This is an earlier version of the paper that appeared in the 2006 issue of Contagion: Garrels, Scott R. "Imitation, Mirror Neurons and Mimetic Desire: Convergence between the Mimetic Theory of René Girard and Empirical Research on Imitation”, in Contagion: Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture, vol. 12-13 (2006), p.47-86.)
38. ^ Cahier de L'Herne n°89 : René Girard, pp. 261-265)
39. ^ "Fetishism and Form: Erotic and Economic Disorder in Literature" in Paul Dumouchel (ed.), Violence and Truth, Athlone Press & Stanford University Press, 1988, pages 134-151 Fetishism and Form:Erotic and Economic Disorder in Literature
40. ^ a b c Mark Anspach: "Global markets, anonymous victims" (Interview by Yannick Blanc and Michel Bessières, in The UNESCO Courrier, May, 2001.
41. ^ a b John Grahl, Money as Sovereignty: the Economics of Michel Aglietta
42. ^ Università degli Studie di Padova: Honoris causa degrees
43. ^ Marie-Claude Bourdon: La violence et le sacré: L’Université remet un doctorat honoris causa au penseur René Girard iForum vol. 38 num. 28 (19 april 2004)
44. ^ University of St Andrews: Honorary degrees - June 2008.
45. ^ John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation: Fellows page: G
46. ^ Simon Simonse: "Review of René Girard, Les origines de la culture" COV&R Bulletin, No. 26 (April 2005), p. 10-11.

Further reading

* Aglietta, Michel & Orléan, André: La violence de la monnaie. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France (PUF), 1982. ISBN 2130374859.
* Alison, James (1998). The Joy of Being Wrong. Herder & Herder. ISBN 0824516761.
* Anspach, Mark (Ed.; 2008). René Girard. Les Cahiers de l'Herne Nr. 89. Paris: L'Herne. ISBN 978-2851971524. A collection of articles by René Girard and a number of other authors.
* Bailie, Gil (1995). Violence Unveiled: Humanity at the Crossroads. Introduction by René Girard. New York: Crossroad. ISBN 0824516451.
* Bellinger, Charles (2001). The Genealogy of Violence: Reflections on Creation, Freedom, and Evil. New York: Oxford. ISBN 0195134982.
* Depoortere, Frederiek (2008). Christ in Postmodern Philosophy: Gianni Vattimo, Rene Girard, and Slavoj Zizek. London: Continuum. ISBN 0567033325.
* Dumouchel, Paul (Ed.; 1988). Violence and Truth: On the Work of René Girard. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804713383.
* Fleming, Chris (2004). René Girard: Violence and Mimesis. Cambridge: Polity. ISBN 0745629482. This is an introduction to René Girard's work.
* Girard, René, and Sandor Goodhart. For René Girard: Essays in Friendship and in Truth. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2009.
* Golsan, Richard J. (1993). René Girard and Myth: An Introduction. New York & London: Garland. (Reprinted by Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0415937779.)
* Hamerton-Kelly, Robert G. (1991). Sacred Violence: Paul's Hermeneutic of the Cross. Fortress Press. ISBN 0800625293.
* Hamerton-Kelly, Robert G. & Johnsen, William (Eds.; 2008). Politics & Apocalypse (Studies in Violence, Mimesis, and Culture Series). Michigan State University Press. ISBN 978-0870138119.
* Heim, Mark (2006). Saved from Sacrifice: A Theology of the Cross. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. ISBN 0802832156 .
* Kirwan, Michael (2004). Discovering Girard. London: Darton, Longman & Todd. ISBN 0232525269. This is an introduction to René Girard's work.
* Lagarde, François (1994). René Girard ou la christianisation des sciences humaines. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 0820422894. This book is both an introduction and a critical discussion of Girard's work, starting with Girard's early articles on Malraux and Saint-John Perse, and ending with A Theatre of Envy.
* Livingston, Paisley (1992). Models of Desire: René Girard and the Psychology of Mimesis. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801843855.
* McKenna, Andrew J. (Ed.; 1985). René Girard and Biblical Studies (Semeia 33). Scholars Press. ISBN 9995387638.
* McKenna, Andrew J. (1992). Violence and Difference: Girard, Derrida, and Deconstruction. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0252062025.
* Mikolajewska, Barbara (1999). Desire Came upon that One in the Beginning... Creation Hymns of the Rig Veda. 2nd edition. New Haven: The Lintons' Video Press. ISBN 0965952916.
* Mikolajewska, Barbara & Linton, F. E. J. (2004). Good Violence Versus Bad: A Girardian Analysis of King Janamejaya's Snake Sacrifice and Allied Events. New Haven: The Lintons' Video Press. ISBN 978-1929865291.
* Oughourlian, Jean-Michel. The Puppet of Desire: The Psychology of Hysteria, Possession, and Hypnosis, translated with an introduction by Eugene Webb (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991).
* Pommier, René (2010). René Girard, un allumé qui se prend pour un phare. Paris: Éditions Kimé. ISBN 978-2841745142.
* Swartley, William M. (Ed.; 2000). Violence Renounced: Rene Girard, Biblical Studies and Peacemaking. Telford: Pandora Press. ISBN 0966502159.
* Tarot, Camille (2008). Le symbolique et le sacré. Paris: La Découverte. ISBN 978-2-7071-5428-6. This book discusses eight theories of religion, namely those by Émile Durkheim, Marcel Mauss, Mircea Eliade, George Dumézil, Claude Lévi-Strauss, René Girard, Pierre Bourdieu and Marcel Gauchet.
* Webb, Eugene. Philosophers of Consciousness: Polanyi, Lonergan, Voegelin, Ricoeur, Girard, Kierkegaard (Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1988)
* Webb, Eugene. The Self Between: From Freud to the New Social Psychology of France (Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1993).
* Wallace, Mark I. & Smith, Theophus H. (1994). Curing Violence : Essays on Rene Girard. Polebridge Press. ISBN 0944344437.
* To Honor René Girard. Presented on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday by colleagues, students, friends (1986). Stanford French and Italian Studies 34. Saratoga, California: Anma Libri. ISBN 0915838036. This volume also contains a bibliography of Girard's writings before 1986.

Astrological portrait of René Girard (excerpt)

Disclaimer: these short excerpts of astrological charts are computer processed. They are, by no means, of a personal nature. This principle is valid for the 48,094 celebrities included in our database. These texts provide the meanings of planets, or combination of planets, in signs and in houses, as well as the interpretations of planetary dominants in line with modern Western astrology rules. Moreover, since Astrotheme is not a polemic website, no negative aspect which may damage the good reputation of a celebrity is posted here, unlike in the comprehensive astrological portrait.

Introduction

Your Comprehensive Astrological Portrait

Here are some character traits from René Girard's birth chart. This description is far from being comprehensive but it can shed light on his/her personality, which is still interesting for professional astrologers or astrology lovers.

In a matter of minutes, you can get at your email address your astrological portrait (approximately 32 pages), a much more comprehensive report than this portrait of René Girard.

The dominant planets of René Girard

When interpreting a natal chart, the best method is to start gradually from general features to specific ones. Thus, there is usually a plan to be followed, from the overall analysis of the chart and its structure, to the description of its different character traits.

In the first part, an overall analysis of the chart enables us to figure out the personality's main features and to emphasize several points that are confirmed or not in the detailed analysis: in any case, those general traits are taken into account. Human personality is an infinitely intricate entity and describing it is a complex task. Claiming to rapidly summarize it is illusory, although it does not mean that it is an impossible challenge. It is essential to read a natal chart several times in order to absorb all its different meanings and to grasp all this complexity. But the exercise is worthwhile.

In brief, a natal chart is composed of ten planets: two luminaries, the Sun and the Moon, three fast-moving or individual planets, Mercury, Venus and Mars, two slow-moving planets, Jupiter and Saturn, and three very slow-moving planets, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Additional secondary elements are: the Lunar Nodes, the Dark Moon or Lilith, Chiron and other minor objects. They are all posited on the Zodiac wheel consisting of twelve signs, from Aries to Pisces, and divided into twelve astrological houses.

The first step is to evaluate the importance of each planet. This is what we call identifying the dominant planets. This process obeys rules that depend on the astrologer's sensitivity and experience but it also has precise and steady bases: thus, we can take into account the parameters of a planet's activity (the number of active aspects a planet forms, the importance of each aspect according to its nature and its exactness), angularity parameters; (proximity to the four angles, Ascendant, Midheaven, Descendant and Imum Coeli or Nadir, all of them being evaluated numerically, according to the kind of angle and the planet-angle distance) and quality parameters (rulership, exaltation, exile and fall). Finally, other criteria such as the rulership of the Ascendant and the Midheaven etc. are important.

These different criteria allow a planet to be highlighted and lead to useful conclusions when interpreting the chart.

The overall chart analysis begins with the observation of three sorts of planetary distributions in the chart: Eastern or Western hemisphere, Northern or Southern hemisphere, and quadrants (North-eastern, North-western, South-eastern and South-western). These three distributions give a general tone in terms of introversion and extraversion, willpower, sociability, and behavioural predispositions.

Then, there are three additional distributions: elements (called triplicity since there are three groups of signs for each one) - Fire, Air, Earth and Water - corresponding to a character typology, modality (or quadruplicity with four groups of signs for each one) - Cardinal, Fixed and Mutable - and polarity (Yin and Yang).

There are three types of dominants: dominant planets, dominant signs and dominant houses. The novice thinks astrology means only "to be Aries" or sometimes, for example, "to be Aries Ascendant Virgo". It is actually far more complex. Although the Sun and the Ascendant alone may reveal a large part of the character - approximately a third or a half of your psychological signature, a person is neither "just the Sun" (called the sign) nor just "the first house" (the Ascendant). Thus, a particular planet's influence may be significantly increased; a particular sign or house may contain a group of planets that will bring nuances and sometimes weaken the role of the Ascendant, of the Sun sign etc.

Lastly, there are two other criteria: accentuations (angular, succedent and cadent) which are a classification of astrological houses and types of decanates that are occupied (each sign is divided into three decanates of ten degrees each). They provide some additional informations.

These general character traits must not be taken literally; they are, somehow, preparing for the chart reading. They allow to understand the second part of the analysis, which is more detailed and precise. It focuses on every area of the personality and provides a synthesis of all the above-mentioned parameters according to sound hierarchical rules.

Hemispheres and Quadrants for René Girard

The axis linking the 1st house's cuspide (the Ascendant) to the 7th house's cuspide - the Descendant - divides the zodiac into two bowls, a superior bowl, in the South, and an inferior bowl in the North. Quoting an expression by the famous American astrologer Rudhyar, the Southern part and the Northern part correspond to two functions: "being" and "doing". Other concepts are also associated with this North and South distribution, such as introversion - Northern hemisphere - and extraversion - Southern hemisphere - being or appearances, inner life or external life, reflection or action, dreaming one's life or living one's dreams, the abstract or the concrete, backstage or limelight.

This is not about determination but about personal inclination: thus, some people will be thrown into public life despite a prominent Northern hemisphere. If this happens, however, it will not be due to their will, their taste or their deep nature. Conversely, a prominent Southern hemisphere will not bring about a famous destiny to its owner, even if he tends to turn the spotlight on himself, or if he looks for a more active life. It is a matter of deep nature and natural inclination. Of course, none of the typologies is "superior" to another.

In your birth chart, René Girard, the ten main planets are distributed as follows:

René Girard, the predominance of planets in the Southern hemisphere prompts you to take action, to draw attention on yourself, and to make your actions and what you have in mind visible to everyone. Sometimes, without giving a single thought to, and to the detriment of, a richer inner life and a deeper and wiser reflection. Action and communication are inevitable in your opinion, and you tend to think that the only thing that matters is what is seen! This is not always true, and it is up to you to progress through the development of inner qualities such as meditation, solitude and imagination so as to become stronger.

The birth chart is divided into two other parts, Eastern and Western, by the axis linking the Midheaven to the Imum Coeli.

The Eastern part, on the Ascendant side, shows the person's ego, will, magnetism, and vitality, whereas the Western part, on the Descendant side, symbolizes other people, communication, relationships and their influence, as well as flexibility and adaptability.

The predominance of planets in the Western hemisphere of your chart means that you are quite flexible, capable of empathy, convivial and communicative. An excellent factor for many professional activities or for your social or sentimental life for example.

A definite asset... provided that you are not at the centre of the decisions you must take in your life: you may be tempted to listen to the last person who spoke, and your flexibility won't always get you out of the tight spot. You are therefore advised to learn to decide alone and to cope with the consequences of your actions with courage and without regrets. This attitude will allow you to combine flexibility and action, adaptability and absence of hesitation.

Each quadrant is a combination of the four hemispheres of your birth chart and relates to a character typology. The Southern hemisphere – the top of your chart, around the Midheaven – is associated with extraversion, action, and public life, whereas the Northern hemisphere prompts to introversion, reflexion, and private life. The Eastern hemisphere – the left part, around the Ascendant – is linked to your ego and your willpower, whereas the Western hemisphere indicates how other people influence you, and how flexible you are when you make a decision.

René Girard, the diurnal South-western quadrant, consisting of the 7th, 8th and 9th houses, prevails in your chart: this sector brings about a thirst for communication and sometimes a need to take risks in your dealings with others. Relations are a factor of your evolution and your transformation, which you accept serenely. Indeed, what matters to you is the movement and the energy that link you to others and that make you gain more awareness. A kind of rebellion or a desire to get away from it all is rooted in you.

Elements, Modalities and Polarities for René Girard

René Girard, here are the graphs of your Elements and Modalities, based on planets' position and angles in the twelve signs:

The predominance of Water signs indicates high sensitivity and elevation through feelings, René Girard. Your heart and your emotions are your driving forces, and you can't do anything on Earth if you don't feel a strong affective charge (as a matter of fact, the word "feeling" is essential in your psychology). You need to love in order to understand, and to feel in order to take action, which causes a certain vulnerability which you should fight against.

Like the majority of Earth signs, René Girard, you are efficient, concrete and not too emotional. What matters to you is what you see: you judge the tree by its fruits. Your ideas keep changing, words disappear, but actions and their consequences are visible and remain. Express your sensitivity, even if it means revealing your vulnerability. Emotions, energy and communication must not be neglected; concrete action is meaningless if it is not justified by your heart, your intellect or your enthusiasm.

Air is under-represented in your natal chart, with only 0.00% instead of the average 25%. Air symbolizes the values of communication, exchanges with others, but also adaptability and flexibility abilities: if you don't get out of your cocoon to talk, to show interest in others, and to socialize, you may have problems understanding others. Because of your lack of flexibility or of your refusal to adapt yourself, you may be suddenly overwhelmed by events. You should get into the habit of talking, of phoning, and of thinking in terms of "mobility, flexibility, adaptability, change" in every circumstance. It will spare you so many troubles!

The twelve zodiacal signs are split up into three groups or modes, called quadruplicities, a learned word meaning only that these three groups include four signs. The Cardinal, Fixed and Mutable modes are more or less represented in your natal chart, depending on planets' positions and importance, and on angles in the twelve signs.

René Girard, the Cardinal mode is dominant here and indicates a predisposition to action, and more exactly, to impulsion and to undertake: you are very keen to implement the plans you have in mind, to get things going and to create them. This is the most important aspect that inspires enthusiasm and adrenalin in you, without which you can grow weary rapidly. You are individualistic (maybe too much?) and assertive. You let others strengthen and improve the constructions which you built with fervour.

The twelve signs are divided into two polarities, called active or passive, or sometimes masculine and feminine, positive and negative, Yang and Yin. This classification corresponds to two quite distinct tonalities, the first one bringing extraversion, action, self-confidence and dynamism, the second one, introversion, reactivity, reflection and caution. None is superior to the other, each group has its own assets and shortcomings. Odd signs - Aries, Gemini, Leo, Libra, Sagittarius and Aquarius - belong to the first group, whereas even signs - Taurus, Cancer, Virgo, Scorpio, Capricorn and Pisces - belong to the second group.

N.B.: this dominant is a minor one. It is not essential that you read its meaning in the beginning. You can get back to them later on, once you have read more important interpretations.

According to the disposition and qualities of your planets and angles, you are rather influenced by Yin energy, the passive polarity, René Girard: you are quite introverted, imaginative and sometimes discreet, but you are a deep and wise person who is not content with just noisy and flashy things. At times, you doubt but you think that those who don't are a bit... thoughtless. Allow yourself to take more laid-back attitudes and put your reserve aside, because good equilibrium is always healthier.

Houses are split up into three groups: angular, succedent and cadent.

The first ones are the most important ones, the most "noticeable" and energetic houses. They are the 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th houses. Their cuspides correspond to four famous angles: Ascendant for the 1st house, Imum Coeli for the 4th house, Descendant, opposite the Ascendant, for the 7th house and Midheaven for the 10th house, opposite the Imum Coeli.

Planets are evaluated according to a whole set of criteria that includes comprehensive Western astrology rules. At their turn, planets emphasize specific types of houses, signs, repartitions etc., as previously explained.

N.B.: this dominant is a minor one. It is not essential that you read its meaning in the beginning. You can get back to them later on, once you have read more important interpretations.

Your angular houses, namely, the 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th houses, are very emphasized in your chart, René Girard: according to the Tradition, they are the strongest and most dynamic houses. Should the rest of your chart concur, angular houses suggest that you are an enterprising, energetic and assertive man. Indeed, angular houses are said to generate impulsions and to give a powerful and domineering personality.

Unusual fates are often linked to a predominance of angular houses, but this is only a partial indication...

Each sign contains 30 degrees and can be divided into three equal parts: the decanates. The Tradition indicates that specific meanings can be associated to each of the three decanates. Their sphere of activity is usually limited to the Sun sign, however, it is even more interesting to observe the distribution of all the planets in the chart to get an idea of the respective importance of the three decanates, which can complement the description of the personality.

These meanings must be considered with the greatest caution. Indeed, they are minor characteristics that can only underline other outstanding traits of character.

Traditionally, the first decanate highlights the characteristics of the sign where a planet is located. The two other decanates correspond to sub-dominant planets, depending on the nature of each sign. This system leads to a multiplication of meanings and it is impossible to have a clear understanding: here, we prefer to give only the meaning of one decanate in comparison with the other two, within the birth chart as a whole. Again, the greatest caution is needed with regard to this minor indication as it is not always reliable: it is not essential that you read these texts in the beginning. You can get back to them later on, once you have read more important interpretations

The third decanate, which means the part between 20° and 30° of any zodiacal sign, prevails in your natal chart, René Girard. It contains the degrees of spirituality, traditionally more delicate to deal with, since they incline towards evolution and therefore, destabilizations. Individuals with an emphasised third decanate may have deeper sensitivity than most people, which often brings ordeals but also spiritual rewards.

Dominants: Planets, Signs and Houses for René Girard

The issue of dominant planets has existed since the mists of time in astrology: how nice it would be if a person could be described with a few words and one or several planets that would represent their character, without having to analyse such elements as rulerships, angularities, houses, etc!

The ten planets - the Sun throughout Pluto - are a bit like ten characters in a role-play, each one has its own personality, its own way of acting, its own strengths and weaknesses. They actually represent a classification into ten distinct personalities, and astrologers have always tried to associate one or several dominant planets to a natal chart as well as dominant signs and houses.

Indeed, it is quite the same situation with signs and houses. If planets symbolize characters, signs represent hues - the mental, emotional and physical structures of an individual. The sign in which a planet is posited is like a character whose features are modified according to the place where he lives. In a chart, there are usually one, two or three highlighted signs that allow to rapidly describe its owner.

Regarding astrological houses, the principle is even simpler: the twelve houses correspond to twelve fields of life, and planets tenanting any given house increase that house's importance and highlight all relevant life departments: it may be marriage, work, friendship etc.

In your natal chart, René Girard, the ten main planets are distributed as follows:

The three most important planets in your chart are Saturn, Moon and Pluto.

Saturn is part of your dominant planets: among the facets of your character, you have a grave and serious side, wise and somewhat severe, since your concentration can be powerful, to the detriment of carelessness and friendliness.

You often look austere, but it is only an appearance, a kind of modesty or reserve; however, it is true that the Saturnian, who is fond of time, effort, asceticism, rigour and sobriety, may have popularity issues. Nevertheless, honesty and straightforwardness, reliability, as well as slow, wise and deep mental process, although not very popular and visible qualities, eventually become noticed and appreciated. Saturnians' second part of life is usually easier and more fulfilling.

Like the Jupiterian, your Saturnian facet prompts you to seek the essential, security, and longevity. However, the difference with the former is that you will never give priority to wealth or "the bigger, the better" philosophy for the sake of power. Saturn, like Jupiter, symbolizes social integration, and it is usually considered positive to have a harmonic Jupiter and Saturn in one's chart because of their social adaptation capacities.

Your vulnerability lies in your too serious and austere side, which may lead to unwanted loneliness and affective frustration. This generally does not last because Saturnians often hide deep down a golden heart that ends up revealing itself...

The Moon is one of the most important planets in your chart and endows you with a receptive, emotive, and imaginative nature. You have an innate ability to instinctively absorb atmospheres and impressions that nurture you, and as a result, you are often dreaming your life away rather than actually living it.

One of the consequences of your spontaneity may turn into popularity, or even fame: the crowd is a living and complex entity, and it always appreciates truth and sincerity rather than calculation and total self-control.

As a Lunar character, you find it difficult to control yourself, you have to deal with your moods, and you must be careful not to stay passive in front of events: nothing is handed on a plate, and although your sensitivity is rich, even richer than most people's, you must make a move and spare some of your energy for... action!

With Pluto as a dominant planet in your chart, you are a magnetic and mighty predator, like the Scorpio sign ruled by this planet, who needs to exert pressure on others in order to "test" them. You are always ready to evolve, to risk destruction for reconstruction - including your own - to live more intensely whilst imposing your secret authority on things and on people you encounter.

You may come across as wicked, cruel or too authoritarian, but actually you only follow your instinct, you sound people out, and you like to exert your domination simply because your vital energy is too powerful to remain inside. You are inclined to be passionate, with hidden motivations. You are sometimes misunderstood but one of your great Plutonian assets is to go successfully through each life ordeal with ever growing strength.

In your natal chart, the three most important signs - according to criteria mentioned above - are in decreasing order of strength Capricorn, Scorpio and Cancer. In general, these signs are important because your Ascendant or your Sun is located there. But this is not always the case: there may be a cluster of planets, or a planet may be near an angle other than the Midheaven or Ascendant. It may also be because two or three planets are considered to be very active because they form numerous aspects from these signs.

Thus, you display some of the three signs' characteristics, a bit like a superposition of features on the rest of your chart, and it is all the more so if the sign is emphasized.

Capricorn is one of your dominant signs and endows you with a grave and serious style that seems to stick to you constantly. But if you have that reserved and cold side - as some extrovert people may think - on the other hand, you possess sturdy qualities: you are strong-willed and tough. Your long-term vision, your sense of duty, and your ambition are not affected by the derisory and erratic motions that seem to upset most mortals less steady than you. Besides, you are like a good wine, you age well and your natural solemnity or serious side paradoxically turns into an almost cheerful appearance, as you grow older. You are actually very sensitive when it comes to love. Faithful, caring, sweet, and sensitive, your behaviour is very different in your everyday, sentimental life. A golden heart beats under your tough and austere appearance...

With Scorpio as a dominant sign, you are a strong and astute person, complicated and passionate, sometimes destructive and intolerant, but strong-willed, tough and daring, sometimes bordering on aggressive. So many qualities and dangers combined in one person! Obviously, this often results in a natural selection of people around you: those who stand up to you or admire you and those who can't bear you anymore! But that is precisely what you want. You are what you are and you are not going to transform yourself just to please. You are too proud and you never dread confrontations, although your way of fighting is secret, like your nature that, mysteriously enough, you are so reluctant to reveal even to your close friends who will never understand you. That said... what a hellish charm you have!

Cancer is one of your dominant signs and endows you with imagination and exceptionally shrewd sensitivity. Although suspicious at first sight - and even at second...- as soon as you get familiar with people and let them win your confidence, your golden heart eventually shows up, despite your discretion and your desire for security that make you return into your shell at the slightest alert! Actually, you are a poet and if you are sometimes blamed for your nostalgia and your laziness, it is because your intense inner life is at full throttle...

The 7th, 10th and 4th houses are the most prominent ones in your birth chart. From the analysis of the most tenanted houses, the astrologer identifies your most significant fields or spheres of activity. They deal with what you are experiencing - or what you will be brought to experience one day - or they deal with your inner motivations.

Your 7th house is one of your dominant houses: it symbolizes other people, marriages, associations, contracts, and partnerships. Your personal achievement and maybe your problems - depending on the rest of your chart - are mainly influenced by your rapports with others, the area in which you tend to commit yourself a lot. You appreciate communication, and you give importance to others' opinions. Success requires the support of others, which seems obvious and natural to you. Your marriage generally contributes to your fulfilment.

With a prominent 10th house, your destiny's achievement may be very notable: the 10th house represents your career, your public life, and your ambitions. A good deal of your energy may thus be used to successfully implement what you have in mind. Instinctively, you are very keen to make your dreams come true. Sooner or later, you will deal with the public, and your personal achievement will go through trials and ordeals: other people and visible actions.

With an important 4th house in your chart, your private life, your intimacy, as well as your family and home, play a fundamental role. Your security and your family unit, the one you come from, but also the one you set up when you get married and start a family - or even as a bachelor living alone in your sweet home - are necessary for you to blossom. According to the Tradition, your father may play an important role in your life.

After this paragraph about dominant planets, of René Girard, here are the character traits that you must read more carefully than the previous texts since they are very specific: the texts about dominant planets only give background information about the personality and remain quite general: they emphasize or, on the contrary, mitigate different particularities or facets of a personality. A human being is a complex whole and only bodies of texts can attempt to successfully figure out all the finer points.

Your sensitivity

Affectivity and intuition are very developed, René Girard, and you are very sensitive to your environment. You “feel” atmospheres, moods and other people's emotions and when you capture negative influences, a feeling of ill-being immediately overwhelms you, all the more so because your lively imagination may destabilize you as it amplifies your receptiveness. Your nature is anxious and you tend to worry for your entourage. You strive to offer them a reassuring family atmosphere, the much needed comforting and warm sort of cocoon where you can laze around, at will. Because you care so much for your family, they may think that you are intrusive and that you try to rule their life through subtle affective blackmail. Trust them... and also learn to have more confidence in yourself!

Your family, your home and often your mother, René Girard, have a strong emotional importance. You feel attached to your roots and the intimate surroundings in which you live are essential; you are deeply fulfilled by this continuous source of affective charges: your home and private life are sacred for you, and you can feel very uncomfortable or unsafe if you are deprived of your haven of peace. Paradoxically, the Tradition indicates that you are predisposed to frequent home moves.

Your intellect and your social life

You need to concentrate on a subject, René Girard, to deepen your research and to follow your reasoning through with persistence and determination. You are the very type of the thinker who needs time and isolation to meditate at length and allow his serious, methodical and rigorous mind to show its worth. Your feet are firmly planted on the ground and to get your attention, ideas must be followed by implementation, for instance as in the case of mathematics applied to physics. You focus on the essential and you look at the world around you with clear-sightedness. You are not very talkative and you act with caution. You may come across as cold and ambitious even though your comments are always sincere and practical. However, be careful not to isolate yourself and to appear as a lofty and intolerant person.

Your lively and conciliating mind is at the service of your career, René Girard. Your natural mobility enables you to constantly adjust and to get the positions you want. Your professional achievement is often the result of your ability to understand that the key to success is in changing. With your extreme flexibility, you may be interested in many simultaneous occupations. In any case, it is unlikely that you remain in the same company or the same sector all your life, unless the said sector is full of variety, human rapports and travels.

Your affectivity and your seductiveness

In your chart, the Sun and Venus are both in Capricorn. At once, this duet sets its affective standards very high: love is a quest for the absolute. You are not interested in commonplaces and conventional values. You rather prefer to attempt to ascend a mountain of love. A commendable ambition. You are credited with an unfailing integrity, an ascetic spirit that excludes all forms of deception. However, the heights you dream of may be out of your reach. Your romanticism, modestly concealed or restrained, offers emotions that people do not immediately perceive. Your heart is not as reserved and cold as people who do not know you may think. But how is it possible to share your aspirations for absolute love? It is so difficult to express and to share your very specific feelings. Remember… How many relationships were lost because you could not declare your love? Time was not on your side, but it can become your ally now. Your strength precisely lies in your exceptional ability to nurture, to structure and to maintain your relationship. If your partner finds her balance with this reassuring promise of longevity, then, you become able to build a relationship that grows each day stronger and closer to your ideal.

René Girard, it is obvious that you do not easily fall in love. But when you do, your feelings are deep, quiet, serious, and above all, lasting. Your need for security is indispensable for your well being and to enable you to give. You offer security and stability with your sense of duty even though you mix up responsibility and love. The charm of your partner does not only include physical features or aroused sentimental attraction, but also intellectual and moral qualities: you fiercely need authenticity and seriousness because this is the way you are. In general, your loves are not numerous and you become able to express yourself quite late in life. Your quiet and stable feelings are really worth it. If you do not get what you want, the danger is that you may seek refuge in cynicism and that you isolate yourself.

If there are no tense aspects with other planets in your chart, this configuration suggests that you are prone, René Girard, to create a link between your career and the sentimental area, even though it may come under various guises: you may be in favour with women in general and enjoy their support as you climb the social ladder and you achieve success more quickly making use of your charm and of your seductive ability. Sometimes, you may mingle love and career (or marriage), thus combining business with pleasure and indeed even… with your destiny. In other cases, you will be interested in Venusian occupations such as the arts, aesthetics, decoration, luxury trade or diplomacy. Whatever your activity, you will appreciate it tremendously and you will feel very much at ease. You will enjoy affective popularity and consequently, an aura of the luck of the devil that can propel you to the top or, at least, to where you dream of being. You are often a perfectionist and the careful zeal you dedicate to the attainment of your objectives greatly contributes to their achievement. Never do you forget them, and nothing pleases you more than to rub shoulders with important people in the higher spheres of diplomacy, politics or business. You love to act as the mediator or the go-between and to have your irresistible charm duly acknowledged and rewarded. According to the Tradition, Venus in the 10th house often indicates that men are strongly attached to their mother and this tie favourably influences their destiny. In some adverse circumstances, you may lack constancy or perseverance in love, or this area may, to some extent, contradict your career objectives, owing to your carelessness. You may be dominated by women, lack authority or you may find yourself doing a balancing act between your love life and your professional life, and being unable to make a choice, thus damaging both.

Your behaviour

Your natural energy is cut-and-dried. It may prompt you to take the driver’s seat wherever you are. Were it not for the strange feeling of sympathy you arouse, you would seem to be arrogant. Charging ahead is not devoid of drawbacks. Your courage and your restlessness may hurt you and cause you to doubt, all of a sudden. As a consequence, your courage, your honesty, your enthusiasm and your straightforwardness may turn into aggressiveness, rebellion and vulnerability that were never suspected. Fortunately, the level of your dynamism is very high and your instinctive and pugnacious side, your particularly profuse energy will not leave you helpless for too long. The fire in your blood will put you back on the saddle towards new stampedes and conquests, as ambitious and glorious as they are perilous.

Because you are born under this sign, you are courageous, honest, enthusiastic, dynamic, swift, extroverted, straightforward, effusive, warm, impulsive, adventurous, bold, martial, competitive, but you may also be gullible, domineering, self-centered, impatient, foolish, thoughtless, childish, irascible, reckless, primary and a blunderer.

In love, Sir, more often than not, your passions are strong and varied. Far from being roadblocks, obstacles have a stimulating effect. You like quick victories and your love life is a series of conquests and of break-ups, as boredom often puts an end to the initial love that made you move mountains.

Your sexuality is powerful and prevails over feelings. You may marry early or on impulse, but it does not prevent you from having a rich and varied love life. Usually, you have few children.

Your will and your inner motivations

Psychologically speaking, your nature is introverted and cold, totally controlled and phlegmatic, at least regarding the image you project invariably. You seem unemotional and austere. Actually, due to your secondarity, you chew over your strategies or your reactions required by your environment. You are slow but very thoughtful, solid and balanced. You are as curt as you are cold and you put the entire strength of your character at the service of your huge and long-term ambition or of your detachment from earthly riches and you focus on spiritual values.

Like all the persons born under an apparently reserved and tough sign, your inner personality is often charming and gentle, as if the thick armour, forged throughout childhood, had entirely preserved the purity and the warmth of the soul imprisoned within.

As you are born under this sign, you are serious, cold, disciplined, patient, focused, thoughtful, ambitious, indomitable, cautious, lucid, persistent, provident, steady, introverted, stern, wilful, hard-working, responsible, persevering, honest, realistic, loyal, reserved, resolute, moralistic, quiet, rigorous, attached and reliable. But you may also be curt, withdrawn, calculating, petty, cruel, unpleasant, ruthless, selfish, dull, rigid, slow or sceptical.

Sir, in love, you may feel less interested than the other Zodiacal signs because you repress your feelings and you practice so much self-control. You want to keep situations under full control, in all circumstances, although love is the only area where progress requires a laid-back attitude, where it is necessary to give in order to receive, all things which are difficult for you.

Therefore, you are alone for a long part of your life until you meet with the love of your life, to whom you will be faithful and attached, beyond reproach. Capricorn has very few but intense and lasting love affairs.

Daily life within your couple is responsible and serious. It may not be too bubbling, but your feelings’ sustainability and solidity make for your lack of spontaneity and extravagance. You may not be very available, as all your time is taken up by your work and the pursuit of success. You are very keen to marry a person who can share your professional interests, which does not lessen the quality of your attachment at all.

Your home is sound, with an atmosphere of seriousness. The effort-oriented education, which you give your children, is respectful of the best traditions.

René Girard, early in life, you apply to yourself the saying "No man is a prophet in his own country". Since you were a little boy, you had the impression that something in you was different and could not be understood by your close friends. Your natal environment prompts you to venture into unknown territories and remote lands, where you hope your real talents and qualities will be acknowledged.

You are more comfortable when you are away from home because of your rebellious mind, because you feel different or because of an awareness which stems from your good sense: what attracts you is far too original, compared to what your family or your roots may offer or may apprehend. This peculiarity may take various forms, depending on your destiny and your personality: an inclination or a strong aspiration for distant trips, higher and abstract studies, higher knowledge, spirituality, philosophy, religion, moral or culture. You are also interested in occupations allowing you to meet your need to be elsewhere, physically or intellectually, such as for instance, the positions of ambassador, judge, exporter, philosopher, researcher, university teacher, reporter or in any job with the clergy. It is clear that your social status can be improved in places located far from your home. Your ambitions are not hampered because you are favoured and predisposed for international contacts, or for contacts that are different from your natal environment. You have no problem learning foreign languages and you study this area with the certainty that you are forging valuable assets for the rest of your life. Your self-assertion and your success go through experiences abroad or connected with foreigners. As you mature, there is a spiritual, moral or intellectual brilliance linked to higher knowledge that radiates from you. It may also be due to the fact that you are dedicated to a noble cause for which you sincerely spare no effort. When great planetary configurations of tension are formed in very few moments of your life, you may be affected by illnesses or fevers contracted abroad; or in your profession, where foreign matters are involved, you may have to bear the consequences of conflicts that tarnish your prestige or your honour. What constitutes your strength does not exclude cautiousness. Too much ease may lead to unforeseen situations: even though this applies obviously to all life areas, it is certain that, when exotic trips are involved, or figuratively, when you take intellectual, moral or spiritual stands, you must cautiously step back and show restraint.

Your ability to take action

Your iron will is part of your assets, René Girard. It is supported by an ingenuity and a skilfulness that may turn you into a mighty and feared personality. You have the knack of spotting weaknesses in persons you deal with and you can easily hurt them with your innate propensity to drill or to test their force. You are extremely stubborn and you never let go when you are convinced that you are right. Sexually, you are potent and passionate. You are domineering and secretive, with a magnetic personality. It is safer to avoid being taken in a conflict with you because you may be very aggressive and you bear grudges. In some cases, you may also be sadistic. Your personality is as secretive as it is domineering in the areas of action and sexuality.

You have a tendency to think relationships in terms of a duel, where one of the partners must hold sway over the other one, René Girard. It may be disturbing, but you are satisfied because you know that your strong natural authority enables you to be in the domineering, and not in the dominated position! Therefore, you excel in all activities having an important relationship component, or with some form of rivalry, authority, or fighting: a critical and uncompromising presenter, a prosecutor, a salesperson responsible for canvassing (although it may be double-edged), an attorney (but not to the defence, of course) etc. You appreciate people who have the energy to take decisions. For you, in the end, to take action means to confront others, for worse, but hopefully, very often, for better.

Conclusion

This text is only an excerpt from of René Girard's portrait. We hope that it will arouse your curiosity, and that it will prompt you to deepen your knowledge of astrology, as well as to visit and use the wide range of free applications at www.astrotheme.com.

Astrological studies describe many of the character traits and they sometimes go deeper into the understanding of a personality. Please, always keep in mind that human beings are continuously evolving and that many parts of our psychological structures are likely to be expressed later, after having undergone significant life's experiences. It is advised to read a portrait with hindsight in order to appreciate its astrological content. Under this condition, you will be able to take full advantage of this type of study.

The analysis of an astrological portrait consists in understanding four types of elements which interact with one another: ten planets, twelve zodiacal signs, twelve houses, and what are called aspects between planets (the 11 aspects most commonly used are: conjunction, opposition, square, trine, sextile, quincunx, semi-sextile, sesqui-quadrate, quintile and bi-quintile. The first 5 aspects enumerated are called major aspects).

Planets represent typologies of our human psychology: sensitivity, affectivity, ability to undertake, will-power, mental process, aptitude, and taste for communication etc., all independent character facets are divided here for practical reasons. The twelve signs forming the space where planets move will "colour", so to speak, these typologies with each planet being located in its particular sign. They will then enrich the quality of these typologies, as expressed by the planets. The Zodiac is also divided into twelve astrological houses. This makes sense only if the birth time is known because within a few minutes, the twelve houses (including the 1st one, the Ascendant) change significantly. They correspond to twelve specific spheres of life: external behaviour, material, social and family life, relationship, home, love life, daily work, partnership, etc. Each planet located in any given house will then act according to the meaning of its house, and a second colouration again enriches those active forces that the planets symbolize. Finally, relations will settle among planets, creating a third structure, which completes the planets' basic meanings. A set of ancient rules, which has stood the test of experience over hundreds of years (although astrology is in evolution, only reliable elements are integrated into classical studies), are applied to organize the whole chart into a hierarchy and to allow your personality to be interpreted by texts. The planets usually analysed are the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, which means two luminaries (the Sun and the Moon) and 8 planets, a total of 10 planets. Additional secondary elements may be taken into account, such as asteroids Chiron, Vesta, Pallas, Ceres (especially Chiron, more well-known), the Lunar nodes, the Dark Moon or Lilith, and even other bodies: astrology is a discipline on the move. Astrological studies, including astrological portrait, compatibility of couples, predictive work, and horoscopes evolve and become more accurate or deeper, as time goes by.

Precision: concerning the horoscopes with a known time of birth, according to the Tradition, we consider that a planet near the beginning (called cuspide) of the next house (less than 2 degrees for the Ascendant and the Midheaven, and less than 1 degree for all other houses) belongs to this house: our texts and dominants take this rule into account. You can also choose not to take this shift into account in the form, and also tick the option Koch or Equal houses system instead of Placidus, the default houses system.

Warning: In order to avoid any confusion and any possible controversy, we want to draw your attention upon the fact that this sample of celebrities is very complete and therefore, it also includes undesirable people, since every category is represented: beside artists, musicians, politicians, lawyers, professional soldiers, poets, writers, singers, explorers, scientists, academics, religious figures, saints, philosophers, sages, astrologers, mediums, sportsmen, chess champions, famous victims, historical characters, members of royal families, models, painters, sculptors, and comics authors or other actual celebrities, there are also famous murderers, tyrants and dictators, serial-killers, or other characters whose image is very negative, often rightly so.

Regarding the latter, it must be remembered that even a monster or at least a person who perpetrated odious crimes, has some human qualities, often noticed by his/her close entourage: these excerpts come from computer programmes devoid of polemical intentions and may seem too soft or lenient. The positive side of each personality is deliberately stressed. Negative sides have been erased here - it is not the same in our comprehensive reports on sale - because it could hurt the families of such people. We are hoping that it will not rebound on the victims' side.

Numerology: Birth Path of René Girard

Testimonies to numerology are found in the most ancient civilizations and show that numerology pre-dates astrology. This discipline considers the name, the surname, and the date of birth, and ascribes a meaning to alphabetic letters according to the numbers which symbolise them.

The path of life, based on the date of birth, provides indications on the kind of destiny which one is meant to experience. It is one of the elements that must reckoned with, along with the expression number, the active number, the intimacy number, the achievement number, the hereditary number, the dominant numbers or the lacking numbers, or also the area of expression, etc.

Your Birth Path:

Your Life Path is influenced by the number 7, and indicates that your destiny is marked with spiritual life, research, and introversion. This number prompts you to steer clear from commonly accepted values. You search for wisdom, sometimes at the cost of some degree of solitude. It may translate into curiosity or a keen interest in metaphysics, religion, or spirituality. Or else, the will to follow a personal path off the beaten path and to build a specific destiny for yourself. Your life is an initiation journey, and worldly vagaries are unable to make you turn away from your research. If the quest for a certain form of the absolute proves to be a powerful factor of creativity, your progression tolerates no easy solutions. The danger is that, owing to your need for independence, you may come across as an exceedingly cold and rigid person. It is all the more so because the number 7 marks extraordinary destinies which sometimes demand sacrifices, particularly on the material or interpersonal areas.

René Girard was born under the sign of the Pig, element Water

Chinese astrology is brought to us as a legacy of age-old wisdom and invites us to develop an awareness of our inner potential. It is believed that the wise man is not subjected to stellar influences. However, we must gain the lucidity and the distance without which we remain locked up in an implacable destiny. According to the legend of the Circle of Animals, Buddha summoned all the animals to bid them farewell before he left our world. Only twelve species answered Buddha's call. They form the Chinese Zodiac and symbolize the twelve paths of wisdom that are still valid nowadays.

The Asian wise man considers that a path is neither good nor bad. One can and must develop one's potentialities. The first step is to thoroughly know oneself.

You are a reliable and helpful person, honest through and through. Intellectual independence is an essential virtue: each and everyone must take one's responsibilities and accept the consequences of one's faults.

You avoid underhand manoeuvres and scheming like the plague! Your unfailing sincerity commands your entourage's consideration. You fight shams and all forms of hypocrisy.

In addition, you take your responsibilities when you have to, you make your choices and you confront facts with courage. You are capable of displaying an unwavering determination, no obstacle can stop you as you try to overcome pitfalls, one after the other. However, you do not like gratuitous struggles nor meaningless trials of strength: you are of a sociable nature and you avoid hurting your entourage as much as you can.

However, your kindness can never conceal your true feelings. In China, it is believed that the native of the Pig is a sensual and voluptuous person, more attached than other people to life's carnal aspects. A quality that spouses and partners will appreciate, unless they are shocked by this undeniable inclination for lust! You are credited with the merit of being unable to conceal your true nature, in all areas.

Chinese astrology has five elements, which are referred to as agents: Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal and Water.

You have a deep affinity with the agent Water. In China, this element corresponds to the planet Mercury, the black colour and the number 6.

You are particularly sensitive to your surroundings, the atmosphere of a place and the climate of a meeting. Your high receptivity allows you to perceive naturally the stakes underlying people and situations.

You are reserved by nature, you favour emotions and inner life, leaving challenges and audacity to other people. You frequently maintain a certain distance and you share your true feelings with few intimate friends only. It is probably because you know that genuine communication is a difficult exercise.

Everything in your realm is sheer subtlety and nuance. The danger is that you may escape realities and indulge in indolence without fulfilling your responsibilities. This is the other side of the coin of your extraordinary sensitivity and your exceptional clear-sightedness.

You feel in tune with few people. However, this selectivity forges relationships that are long-lasting because they are natural and genuine.

N. B.: when the birth time is unknown, (12:00 PM (unknown)), these portrait excerpts do not take into account the parameters derived from the time, which means, the domification (Ascendant, astrological houses, etc.). Nonetheless, these analyses remain accurate in any case. Regarding the sources of the birth data in our possession, kindly note that the pages we publish constitute a starting point for more detailed research, even though they seem useful to us. When the sources are contradictory, which occurs rarely, after having analysed them, we choose the most reliable one. Sometimes, we publish a birth date just because it is made available, but we do not claim that is it the best one, by no means.

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