Astrology, Horoscope, Planets, Dominant planets, Natal Chart
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Wilbur Wright: Astrology and Horoscope

Born:April 16, 1867, 12:00 PM (unknown)
in:Millville (IN) (United States)
Sun: 26°15' Aries  
Moon:0°07' Libra  
Dominants: Aries, Pisces, Cancer
Venus, Saturn, Sun
Water, Fire / Cardinal
Numerology: Birthpath 6
Popularity: 4,506 clicks, 7,846th man, 12,741st celebrity

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Celebrities born the same day: Charlie Chaplin, Pope Benedict XVI, Olivia Del Rio, Akon, Michel Denisot, Martin Lawrence, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Selena (singer), Ellen Barkin, Michel Blanc, Michael Jackson (British actor), Marguerite Steinheil... List of all the celebrities born on April 16.

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Horoscope and chart of Wilbur Wright

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Signs: Aries
 
"I am"
March 21 - April 20

1st Fire sign - 1st Cardinal sign (spring equinox) - Masculine

In analogy with Mars, his ruler, and the 1st House

Aries governs the head.

His colour is red, his stone is the heliotrope, his day is Tuesday, and his professions are businessman, policeman, sportsman, surgeon...

If your sign is Aries or your Ascendant is Aries: you are courageous, frank, enthusiastic, dynamic, fast, bold, expansive, warm, impulsive, adventurous, intrepid, warlike, competitive, but also naive, domineering, self-centred, impatient, rash, thoughtless, blundering, childish, quick-tempered, daring or primitive.

Some traditional associations with Aries: Countries: England, France, Germany, Denmark. Cities: Marseille, Florence, Naples, Birmingham, Wroclaw, Leicester, Capua, Verona. Animals: Rams and sheeps. Food: Leeks, hops, onions, shallots, spices. Herbs and aromatics: mustard, capers, Cayenne pepper, chilli peppers. Flowers and plants: thistles, mint, bryonies, honeysuckles. Trees: hawthorns, thorny trees and bushes. Stones, Metals and Salts: diamonds, iron, potassium phosphate.

Signs: Taurus
 
"I have"
April 21 - May 20

1st Earth sign - 1st Fixed sign - Feminine

In analogy with Venus, his ruler, and the 2nd House

Taurus governs the neck and the throat.

Her colour is green or brown, her stone is the emerald, her day is Friday, her professions are cook, artist, estate agent, banker, singer...

If your sign is Taurus or your Ascendant is Taurus: you are faithful, constant, sturdy, patient, tough, persevering, strong, focused, sensual, stable, concrete, realistic, steady, loyal, robust, constructive, tenacious. You need security, but you are also stubborn, rigid, possessive, spiteful, materialistic, fixed or slow.

Some traditional associations with Taurus: Countries: Switzerland, Greek islands, Ireland, Cyprus, Iran. Cities: Dublin, Palermo, Parma, Luzern, Mantua, Leipzig, Saint Louis, Ischia, Capri. Animals: bovines. Food: apples, pears, berries, corn and other cereals, grapes, artichokes, asparagus, beans. Herbs and aromatics: sorrels, spearmint, cloves. Flowers and plants: poppies, roses, digitales, violets, primroses, aquilegia, daisies. Trees: apple trees, pear trees, fig-trees, cypresses, ash trees. Stones, Metals and Salts: copper, calcium and potassium sulphate, emeralds.

Signs: Gemini
 
"I think"
May 21 - June 21

1st Air sign - 1st Mutable sign - Masculine

In analogy with Mercury, his ruler, and the 3rd House

Gemini governs the arms, the lungs and the thorax.

His colour is green or silver, his stone is the crystal, his day is Wednesday, his professions are journalist, lawyer, presenter, dancer, salesman, travel agent, teacher...

If your sign is Gemini or if your Ascendant is Gemini: you are expressive, lively, adaptable, quick-witted, humorous, sparkling, playful, sociable, clever, curious, whimsical, independent, polyvalent, brainy, flexible, ingenious, imaginative, charming, fanciful but also capricious, scattered, moody, shallow, inquisitive, opportunistic, unconcerned, selfish, fragile, ironical or changeable.

Some traditional associations with Gemini: Countries: Belgium, Wales, United-States, Lower Egypt, Sardinia, Armenia. Cities: London, Plymouth, Cardiff, Melbourne, San Francisco, Nuremberg, Bruges, Versailles. Animals: monkeys, butterflies, parrots, budgerigars. Food: dried fruits, chestnuts, ground-level vegetables: peas, broad beans, etc. Herbs and aromatics: aniseed, marjoram, lemon balm, cumin. Flowers and plants: lilies of the valley, lavenders, myrtle, ferns, Venus-hair-ferns, bittersweets. Trees: nut trees such as chestnut trees. Stones, Metals and Salts: agates, mercury, silicas and potashes.

Signs: Cancer
 
"I feel"
June 22 - July 22

1st Water sign - 2nd Cardinal sign (summer solstice) - Feminine

In analogy with the Moon, her ruler, and the 4th House

Cancer governs the stomach and the breast.

Her colour is white or black, her stone is the moonstone, her day is Monday, her professions are catering, the hotel trade, property, antique dealer, archaeologist...

If your sign is Cancer or your Ascendant is Cancer: you are emotional, sentimental, peaceful, imaginative, sensitive, faithful, resistant, protective, vulnerable, generous, romantic, nostalgic, tender, poetic-minded, motherly or fatherly, dreamy, indolent, greedy, devoted but also timorous, unrealistic, evasive, passive, anxious, dependent, stubborn, moody, passive, lazy, touchy, stay-at-home or inaccessible.

Some traditional associations with Cancer: Countries: Holland, Scotland, North and West Africa, New-Zealand, Paraguay, Algeria. Cities: Amsterdam, Manchester, Tokyo, New York, Istanbul, Stockholm, Milan, Venice, Genoa, Cadix, Alger, Tunis, Bern, Magdeburg. Animals: crabs, animals with shells. Food: milk, fishes, watery fruits and vegetables, turnips, white and red cabbages. Herbs and aromatics: tarragon, verbena, saxifrage. Flowers and plants: geraniums, white roses and white flowers in general, water lilies, morning glory, bear's breeches, and lilies. Trees: all trees full of sap. Stones, Metals and Salts: pearls, silver, lime and calcium phosphate.

Signs: Leo
 
"I love"
July 23 - August 22

2nd Fire sign - 2nd Fixed sign - Masculine

In analogy with the Sun, his ruler, and the 5th House

Leo governs the heart and the spine, and the eyes, according to some authors.

His colour is gold or orange, his stone is the diamond, his day is Sunday, his professions are actor, manager, jeweller, fashion and arts, and action (e.g. fireman)...

If your sign is Leo or your Ascendant is Leo: you are proud, determined, strong-willed, loyal, solemn, generous, ambitious, courageous, heroic, conquering, creative, confident, seductive, happy, daring, fiery, majestic, honest, magnanimous, charismatic, responsible, noble, dramatic but also domineering, vain, susceptible, bossy, stubborn, intolerant, self-centred, violent, quick-tempered, nonchalant.

Some traditional associations with Leo: Countries: Italy, Romania, Sicily, Czechoslovakia, Iraq, Lebanon, Southern France. Cities: Rome, Prague, Bombay, Madrid, Philadelphia, Chicago, Los Angeles, Bath, Bristol, Portsmouth, Syracuse, Damas. Animals: lions and felines in general. Food: meat and especially red meat, rice, honey, cereals, grapes, iron-rich vegetables: watercress, spinach etc. Herbs and aromatics: saffron, mint, rosemary, common rue (Ruta graveolens). Flowers and plants: marigolds, sunflowers, celandines, passion flowers. Trees: palm trees, laurel, walnuts, olive trees, lemon and orange trees. Stones, Metals and Salts: gold, rubies, magnesium and sodium phosphate.

Signs: Virgo
 
"I serve"
August 23 - September 22

2nd Earth sign - 2nd Mutable sign - Feminine

In analogy with Mercury, her ruler, and the 6th house

Virgo governs the intestine.

Her colour is green or yellow, her stone is the agate, her day is Wednesday, her professions are accountant, secretary, writer, computer scientist, nurse, doctor...

If your sign is Virgo or your Ascendant is Virgo: you are brainy, perspicacious, attentive to detail and numbers, analytical, serious, competent, scrupulous, sensible, modest, logical, tidy, well-organized, clean, hard-working, provident, honest, faithful, reserved, shy, helpful, a perfectionist, but also narrow-minded, calculating, irritating, petty, anxious, cold, repressed or caustic.

Some traditional associations with Virgo: Countries: Brazil, Greece, Turkey, West Indies, United-States (the same as Gemini), Yugoslavia, Crete, Mesopotamia, Lower Silesia, State of Virginia. Cities: Paris, Boston, Athens, Lyon, Corinthia, Heidelberg, spa towns in general. Animals: dogs, cats and all pets. Food: root vegetables: carrots, celeriac, kohlrabies, potatoes etc... Also dried fruits such as chestnuts. Herbs and aromatics: the same as Gemini whose ruler is Mercury too, lilies of the valley, lavenders, myrtles, ferns, Venus-hair-ferns, bittersweets, clovers. Flowers and plants: small bright-coloured flowers, especially blue and yellow, such as dandelions, buttercups, yellow dead-nettles, buglosses, forget-me-nots ; cardamoms, oak leaves, acorns. Trees: all nut trees, e.g. the hazelnut tree... Stones, Metals and Salts: sards (red agate), mercury, nickel, potassium sulphate and iron phosphate.

Signs: Libra
 
"we are"
September 23 - October 22

2nd Air sign - 3rd Cardinal sign (autumn equinox) - Masculine

In analogy with Venus, his ruler and the 7th House

Libra governs the kidneys and the bladder.

His colour is blue or red (not too bright), his stone is the opal, his day is Friday, his professions are in the beauty, luxury or fashion industry, musician, artistic creator, lawyer, mediator...

If your sign is Libra or your Ascendant is Libra: you are sentimental, charming, polite, refined, loyal, a pacifist, fair, distinguished, light-hearted, romantic, learned, ethereal, nice, well-groomed, a perfectionist, calm, sweet, tolerant, sociable, elegant, considerate, seductive, aesthetic, indulgent, but also hesitant, weak, indecisive, selfish, fragile, fearful, indolent, cool or even insensitive.

Some traditional associations with Libra: Countries: Japan, Canada, Indo-China, South Pacific Islands, Burma, Argentina, Upper Egypt, Tibet. Cities: Lisbon, Vienna, Frankfurt, Leeds, Nottingham, Johannesburg, Antwerp, Fribourg. Animals: lizards and small reptiles. Food: berries, apples, pears, grapes, artichokes, asparagus, beans, spices, corn and other cereals. Herbs and aromatics: mint, Cayenne pepper. Flowers and plants: hydrangea, big roses, blue flowers and those associated with Taurus also ruled by Venus, namely, poppies, digitales, violets, primroses, aquilegia, and daisies. Trees: ash trees, poplars, apple trees, pear trees, fig-trees, cypresses. Stones, Metals and Salts: sapphires, jade, copper, potassium and sodium phosphate.

Signs: Scorpio
 
"we have"
October 23 - November 21

2nd Water sign - 3rd Fixed sign - Feminine

In analogy with Pluto, her ruler with Mars, and the 8th House

Scorpio governs the sexual organs and the anus.

Her colour is black or dark red, her stone is the malachite, her day is Tuesday, her professions are gynaecologist, psychiatrist, detective, the military, army, stockbroker, asset managemer...

If your sign is Scorpio or your Ascendant is Scorpio: you are secretive, powerful, domineering, resistant, intuitive, asserted, charismatic, magnetic, strong-willed, perspicacious, passionate, creative, independent, vigorous, generous, loyal, hard-working, persevering, untameable, possessive, cunning, ambitious, sexual, proud, intense, competitive but also aggressive, destructive, stubborn, anxious, tyrannical, perverse, sadistic, violent, self-centred, complex, jealous.

Some traditional associations with Scorpio: Countries: Morocco, Norway, Algeria, Syria, Korea, Uruguay, Transvaal. Cities: Washington, New Orleans, Valencia, Liverpool, Milwaukee, Fes, Halifax, Hull, Cincinnati. Animals: insects and other invertebrates. Food: the same strong tasting food as for Aries: red meat, garlic, onions, leeks, spices. Herbs and aromatics: aloes, witch hazels, nepeta, mustard, capers, peppers. Flowers and plants: geraniums, rhododendrons, thistles, mint, honeysuckles. Trees: blackthorns, bushes. Stones, Metals and Salts: opals, steel and iron, calcium and sodium sulphate.

Signs: Sagittarius
 
"we think"
November 22 - December 20

3rd Fire sign - 3rd Mutable sign - Masculine

In analogy with Jupiter, his ruler, and the 9th House

Sagittarius governs the thighs and the liver.

His colour is indigo, orange or red, his stone is the carbuncle, his day is Thursday, his professions are explorer, commercial traveller, pilot, philosopher, writer, clergyman...

If your sign is Sagittarius or your Ascendant is Sagittarius: you are charismatic, fiery, energetic, likeable, benevolent, tidy, jovial, optimistic, extraverted, amusing, straightforward, demonstrative, charming, independent, adventurous, straightforward, bold, exuberant, freedom-loving.

Some traditional associations with Sagittarius: Countries: Spain, Australia, Hungary, South Africa, Arabia, Yugoslavia. Cities: Stuttgart, Toledo, Budapest, Cologne, Avignon, Sheffield, Naples, Toronto. Animals: fallow deers, hinds, and all games. Food: grapefruits, raisins, onions, leeks, bulb vegetables. Herbs and aromatics: aniseeds, sage, bilberries, cinnamon, borage, mosses, sage, blueberry, patience, balsam. Flowers and plants: dandelions, carnations, thistles. Trees: mulberry trees, chestnut trees, ash trees, lemon trees, oaks. Stones, Metals and Salts: topaz, tin, silica, potassium chloride.

Signs: Capricorn
 
"we achieve"
December 21 - January 19

3rd Earth sign - 4th Cardinal sign (winter solstice) - Feminine

In analogy with Saturn, her ruler, and the 10th House

Capricorn governs the knees, the bones and the skin.

Her colour is black, or grey, green or brown, her stone is the jade, her day is Saturday, her professions are politician, researcher, jurist, scientist, engineer, administrator...

If your sign is Capricorn or your Ascendant is Capricorn: you are serious, cold, disciplined, patient, focused, thoughtful, ambitious, indomitable, cautious, lucid, persistent, provident, steady, introverted, stern, wilful, hard-working, responsible, persevering, honest, realistic, loyal, reserved, resolute, moralistic, quiet, rigorous, attached and reliable. But you may also be curt, withdrawn, calculating, petty, cruel, unpleasant, ruthless, selfish, dull, rigid, slow or sceptical.

Some traditional associations with Capricorn: Countries: India, Mexico, Afghanistan, Macedonia, Thrace, the Yugoslavian coast, the Orkneys and Shetland Islands, Albania, Bulgaria, Saxony. Cities: Delhi, Oxford, Brussels, Mexico, Port-Saïd, Gent, Constance, Mecklenburg, all the administrative centres of capital cities. Animals: goats, pigs and animals with split hooves. Food: meat, potatoes, barley, beets, spinach, medlars, onions, quinces, flour and starchy food in general. Herbs and aromatics: indian hemp, comfreys, centaureas, hemlocks, henbanes. Flowers and plants: ivies, wild pansies, amaranths, pansies. Trees: pines, willows, flowering ashes, aspens, poplars, alders. Stones, Metals and Salts: turquoises, amethysts, silver, lead, calcium phosphate, calcium fluorine.

Signs: Aquarius
 
"we love"
January 20 - February 18

3rd Air sign - 4th Fixed sign - Masculine

In analogy with Uranus his ruler, with Saturn, and the 11th House

Aquarius governs the ankles and the legs.

His colour is navy blue or indigo, his stone is the sapphire, his day is Saturday, his professions are astrologer, high technologies, scientist, astronaut, psychiatrist, actor, electrician...

If your sign is Aquarius or your Ascendant is Aquarius: you are idealistic, altruistic, detached, independent, original, surprising, gifted, contradictory, innovative, humanistic, likeable, friendly, self-confident, impassive, quiet, intuitive, creative, charitable, elusive, disconcerting, generous, tolerant, paradoxical, and you cannot stand any kind of constraint. But you may also be marginal, resigned, distant, utopian, maladjusted, eccentric and cold.

Some traditional associations with Aquarius: Countries: Russia, Sweden, Poland, Israel, Iran, Abyssinia. Cities: Moscow, Salzburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Saint Petersburg. Animals: long distance big birds such as the albatross. Food: citrus fruits, apples, limes, dried fruits and easily preserved food. Herbs and aromatics: peppers, hot red peppers, star-fruits, and generally herbs that are spicy or with an unusual flavour. Flowers and plants: orchids, dancing ladies, polygonatum. Trees: fruit trees. Stones, Metals and Salts: aquamarines, aluminium, sodium chloride and magnesium phosphate.

Signs: Pisces
 
"we serve"
February 19 - March 20

3rd Water sign - 4th Mutable sign - Feminine

In analogy with Neptune her ruler with Jupiter, and the 12th House

Pisces governs the feet and the blood circulation.

Her colour is green or purple or turquoise blue, her stone is the amethyst, her day is Thursday, her professions are seamanship and and faraway travels, musician, social and emergency worker, doctor, writer and jobs in remote places...

If your sign is Pisces or your Ascendant is Pisces: you are emotional, sensitive, dedicated, adaptable, nice, wild, compassionate, romantic, imaginative, flexible, opportunist, intuitive, impossible to categorized, irrational, seductive, placid, secretive, introverted, pleasant, artistic, and charming. But you may also be indecisive, moody, confused, wavering, lazy, scatterbrained, vulnerable, unpredictable and gullible.

Some traditional associations with Pisces: Countries: Portugal, Scandinavia, small Mediterranean islands, Gobi desert, Sahara. Cities: Jerusalem, Warsaw, Alexandria, Seville, Santiago de Compostela. Animals: fishes, aquatic mammals and all animals living in the water. Food: melons, cucumbers, lettuces, vegemite sugar, pumpkins. Herbs and aromatics: lemon, chicory, limes, mosses. Flowers and plants: water lilies, willows, aquatic plants. Trees: fig-trees, willows, aquatic trees. Stones, Metals and Salts: heliotropes, moonstone, platinum, tin, iron phosphate and potassium sulphate.

Sun 26°15' Aries

Sun Aspects
Sun square Mars orb -0°24'
Sun sextile Jupiter orb -4°04'
Planets: Sun

The Sun represents vitality, individuality, will-power and creative energy and honours. For a woman, it also represents her father, and later her husband. The Sun is one of the most important symbols in the birth chart, as much as the Ascendant, then the Moon (a bit less for a man), the ruler of the Ascendant and the fast-moving planets.

It's element is fire; it is hot and dry, it governs Leo, is in exaltation in Aries and is in analogy with the heart. It represents the boss, authority, beside the father and the husband ; the age of the Sun goes from 20 years old to about 40, following the Venus age when one is aware of his seductive power.

Temperament : Bilious

Characterology : Emotive, Active, Secondary, passionate type.

Sun in Aries

Your entourage is amazed by your energy, your courage and your boldness. Your reactions are quick, even instantaneous. Your enthusiasm prompts you to follow your natural impulses, even though you are not aware of all the consequences of your actions. Above all, you want to live each moment intensely, without fearing the future. Your enterprising spirit is supported by an acute sense of confrontation. Present! This is Aries answering the call. Any call, provided that there is some degree of new-ness or some challenge. If Aries’ dynamism and enterprising spirit are underlined, it is because the sign is more inclined to commit itself in the present and to start from scratch. This ability to take action on the spot in response to any stimulation also applies to the area of your relationships: you say outloud what you deem necessary to say, even if it means foolishly upsetting several persons. It is black or white, yes or no… often without balance! Beginning and undertaking are situations where you feel that you are in your element. Your qualities can also be expressed when you are bogged down in inextricable and complicated relationships: you know how to simplify things but you should beware not to do so in a caricatured manner.

Sun Dominant

If the Sun is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Solarian: you loathe pettiness and Machiavellian manoeuvre, and you are fond of natural nobleness as well as of direct and honest attitudes. You endeavour to get out of muddled or dark situations as quickly as possible. Your need for transparency may lead you to make cut-and-dried judgments such as yes or no, and black or white. However, your honesty commands your entourage's consideration. At times, you come across as authoritarian. It is true that you never want to be thought of the notable absentee, and that you manage to make people pay attention to you, as well as to your plans and your assessments. To this end, the Solarian sometimes develops a great talent for placing himself under the spotlight without missing a single opportunity to arouse interest. Some other Solarians, although more discreet, still manage to be the focus of any debate, even in situations of exclusion. It is your way of being present even though you are actually not there... More than other people, you appreciate the esteem extended to you. It is useless to cheat with you, since in all areas you consider establishing enduring relationships only with those who love you, admire you, respect you, or express some degree of affection to you. Your will to straighten out your inter-personal relationships is your strength and sometimes, your Achilles' heel. You cannot achieve anything behind the scenes. Therefore, your comportment is marked with heroism, and your stands are devoid of ambiguity, in the sense that your commitments are unfailing, and your rebuffs, final.

Interpretation of the 26° Aries symbolic degree

"A man who stumbles over a stone is about to fall near a dragon watching him." (Janduz version)

Inventive, non-conformist, and obstinate character. One does not share the ideas prevailing in one's social background and believes that obsolete traditions need to be reformed. After having reached the peak of one's career, one is threatened by a reversal of fortune which can be overcome after many years of hard work and much courage. However, on the image, the man has not fallen down yet, and the dragon, which symbolises the guardian of treasures, indicates that total ruin can be avoided if one displays wisdom and persistence. If this degree is on the Ascendant and in conjunction with Mars and the Moon, there is a risk of violent death or serious eye condition. This degree also portends family estrangement and loss of traditions.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Moon 0°07' Libra

Moon Aspects
Moon opposite Mercury orb -0°25'
Moon inconjunction Jupiter orb +0°13'
Moon square Uranus orb -4°42'
Moon sesqui-quadrate Pluto orb +0°55'
Moon sextile Mars orb +4°16'
Planets: Moon

The Moon represents instinctive reaction, unconscious predestination, everyday mood, sensitivity, emotions, the feminine side of the personality, intuition, imagination. For a man, she represents his mother and later his wife, and his relationship with women in general. For a woman, the Moon is almost as important as the Sun and the Ascendant. Her element is water, she is cold and moist, she rules Cancer, is in exaltation in Taurus and is in analogy with the stomach.

She symbolizes the mother, wife, the crowd, the Moon is associated with birth and childhood. Tradition also matches her with the end of life, after Saturn the old age, it is thus customary to go back to one's place of birth to die: the end of life meets the very beginning.

Temperament : Lymphatic

Characterology : Emotive, non Active and Primary type or Non-Emotive, non Active and Primary, Nervous or Amorphous type.

Moon in Libra

On the day and at the time of your birth, the Moon was in the sign of Libra. You loathe violence. Your nature is sociable and you are keen to maintain harmony in your environment. You are sensitive to “the spirit of the times”, to prevailing trends and currents. Because you pick up the moods of the people who surround you, you can be diplomatic. As you adopt the characteristics of your environment, your may become vulnerable. Your surrounding models may influence your tastes and your habits: you readily espouse your entourage’s standards and aesthetic concepts. You can take advantage of your strong sensitivity in order to express yourself through a “beyond the home” activity that requires fineness, aesthetical sense, and good taste.

Moon Dominant

If the Moon is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Lunarian: the driving force behind your actions is mainly the pursuit of well-being and tranquillity. Your sensitive and romantic self lives on those periods of rest during which you let your imagination wander at will. This is your way of finding inspiration and balance. Nothing is allowed to disturb your feeling of fulfilment and security within a harmonious cell, be it a family or a clan. More than other people, the Lunarian is attached to those moments during which one forgets one's worries and lets oneself cast adrift aimlessly, with no other goal than to be lulled into an ambiance, a situation, or a perfect moment. Many people do not understand such absences and their meaning, which is to regain strength. These people readily describe you with such unflattering terms as apathy and nonchalance. Never mind! Some inspirations require surrendering as well as striking a balance derived from alternate action and passivity. Your qualities are expressed to the fullest in situations which demand familiarity and privacy. Your capacities to respect and blend into your environment is at least as valuable as some other people's aggressive dispositions. However, you are well-advised to avoid indolence and renunciation out of laziness or indifference.

Interpretation of the 0° Libra symbolic degree

"A man with a pistol in each hand walks in a barren land, unaware that he is followed by a man holding a sword." (Janduz version)

Independent, assertive, and affectionate character. There is an overwhelming tendency to be over-protective with family members. Self-righteousness may lead to dangerous situations of violence with danger of severe physical and psychological injuries. This degree indicates a strong taste for the practice of weapons, and the possibility to excel in all martial arts. It also endows with the gift for healing animals, especially horses, and often describes an excellent veterinary specialist.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Mercury 0°32' Aries

Mercury Aspects
Moon opposite Mercury orb -0°25'
Mercury trine Mars orb -4°41'
Mercury square Uranus orb +4°17'
Mercury semi-sextile Jupiter orb +0°12'
Mercury semi-square Pluto orb -1°20'
Mercury trine Saturn orb +7°55'
Planets: Mercury

Mercury represents communication, logical and rational mind, intellectual skills. Earth is its element, it is cold and dry, and it rules Virgo and Gemini, is in exaltation in Virgo and is in analogy with the arms, hands, nervous system.

It represents tradesmen, lawyers, messengers; the age of Mercury goes from 8 or10 years old to about 15..

Temperament : Nervous

Characterology : Emotive, non Active and Primary type or Non-Emotive, Active and Primary, Nervous or Sanguine type.

Mercury in Aries

Mercury describes your relations, your communication skills and the way you relate to the external world. However, other astrological elements also influence these areas. The sign Mercury occupies is significant only if Mercury is part of your planetary dominantes. In your chart, Mercury is in Aries. You respond very quickly to the stimulations of your environment. Your mind is constantly on the lookout, searching for new information. Communication is a matter of spontaneity and emotions experienced day-to-day. You always have a quick retort, you are fond of debates and you are avid for novelties. The danger is that you may get carried away by an impulsiveness detrimental to your relationships. Beware of bad language!

Mercury Dominant

If Mercury is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Mercurian: the tradition points out the importance of communication. From idle but enriching chatters to observation gift, such a dominant endows you with a wide range of expression. Human beings have one thousand facets and one thousand masks they wear according to circumstances and the fortunes of the game of life. You take the role of an observer who is avid for novelties, discoveries, and surprises. Everything catches your attention and becomes an opportunity for new encounters, relationships, and learning. The world amazes you, amuses you sometimes, and stimulates your curiosity. Because the most important thing is to discover, and because you consider that each new situation is packed with potentialities, you try to fill the gaps in your knowledge. Although your open-mindedness may scatter your centres of interest, it also enables you to carefully avoid sticking to only one immutable and rigid view. The slightest sign enables you to perceive the other side of the coin, as well as the infinite complexity of people and of situations. On the human plane, you seek the dialogue and the information without which you know that you are not able to fully grasp the nature of your interlocutor. This keen interest in the Unknown sharpens your inter-relational skills. All these qualities are traditionally associated with Mercury.

Interpretation of the 0° Aries symbolic degree

"A sturdy man wearing coarse animal skins or fabrics stands firmly on the ground with a cudgel in his hand. He seems prepared to respond to any danger." (Janduz version)

Aggressive, tough, and passionate character well-equipped for facing life struggles. One is able to use physical strength as well as intellectual weapons, according to one's social background. One is mainly interested in life's materialistic aspects and protects efficiently one's rights and assets. Nevertheless, there is a potential danger of loss and/or lawsuit related to inheritance matters. One must be careful not to let temptations, whether sex, gambling, or any other passion, prevail over one's major goals. Indeed, this degree is associated with Hercules, a man who can achieve amazing feats, but who can also fall into the traps of seduction.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Venus 15°50' Pisces

Venus Aspects
Venus sextile Pluto orb -1°38'
Venus trine Saturn orb -6°45'
Planets: Venus

Venus represents the way one loves, relationships, sharing, affectivity, seductive ability. For men, she also corresponds to the kind of woman he's attracted to (but not especially in marriage which is more symbolized by the Moon, Venus is the lover and not the wife). Her element is the Air, she is moist, rules Taurus and Libra, is in exaltation in Pisces and is in analogy with the kidneys, the venous system, the bladder, the neck.

She represents the artists, tradesmen, occupations linked to beauty and charm; the age of Venus goes from 15 to about 25 years old.

Temperament : Sanguine and Lymphatic

Characterology : Emotive, non Active and Primary type or Emotive, non Active and Secondary type.

Venus in Pisces

Venus describes your affective life. On the day of your birth, she is found in Pisces. Your emotionalism is very strong and very unusual. You have your own manner to experience your emotions and your sensations, in an atmosphere that may be odd, you complicate your amorous life… and this is part of your charm, at the same time. On the chessboard of your sentimental life, quite strange games enfold. Your affectivity is subtle, fabulous and unusual: love reinvents everything and anything becomes possible when your heart is sincere. You dream of a complete fusion and of giving yourself totally. No rules, no moral or social code is more important than the feeling of shared passion and than living for your partner. Your affective life is complex, sometimes mysterious: you don’t know why you love, or why you don’t love any more… Your sentimental life obeys a different logic than that of the external world. Love is elusive and fragile. Nothing is easier than to destroy a feeling and to forget a passion. Your sensitivity responds to an unknown call, a strange signal. Therefore, you may shift from intense and absolute feelings to cruel indifference. Although you don’t know why, you are being transformed. The most difficult thing is to love a real being and not a shadow. You give yourself to persons who can understand and respect the fragile realm of your affectivity.

Venus Dominant

If Venus is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Venusian: you are a sensual and emotional person particularly receptive to the natural likes and dislikes aroused by your contact with people. You are prone to frequent instinctive aversions and true passions which are exclusively driven by the feeling of love. The heart has its reasons which Reason knows nothing of... Your balance is based on the richness of your affective life. Without love, the Venusian is resourceless, lost, and deprived of any reason for living. You have an obvious and strong will to charm and to arouse the attachments without which you cannot properly function. Every area of your life is thus marked by your affectivity. The danger is that you may "be taken in" by charm. In such cases, you would prefer to keep your emotions under better control. Thus, hyper-sensitivity has its own inconveniences. Nevertheless, better than anyone else, you know how to play with feelings and attractions. Although you are sometimes caught in the traps of an over sensitive emotionalism, feelings remain your best assets in many circumstances. There is another aspect to the Venusian dominant. According to the Tradition, this planet rules the Arts, and you are endowed with some degree of artistic dispositions, ranging from good to excellent.

Interpretation of the 15° Pisces symbolic degree

"Sheltered under a big rock, a tiger stands guard over its cubs." (Janduz version)

Caring, shrewd, and vigilant character. Driven by strong maternal/paternal instincts, one does not hesitate to dedicate one's intellectual and financial resources to the success of one's children. With determination, patience, and tenderness, one works hard to ensure that they have a bright future. This degree also describes a very protective and understanding leader.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Mars 25°50' Cancer

Mars Aspects
Sun square Mars orb -0°24'
Mars trine Saturn orb -3°14'
Mercury trine Mars orb -4°41'
Moon sextile Mars orb +4°16'
Mars quintile Pluto orb -0°21'
Planets: Mars

Mars represents the desire for action and physical energy, sexuality, strength. For a woman, Mars corresponds to the kind of man she's attracted to (but not especially in marriage which is rather symbolized by the Sun, Mars is the lover, not the husband). Fire is its element, it is hot and dry, and it rules Aries and Scorpio (along with Pluto), is in exaltation with Capricorn and is in analogy with the muscles and the spleen.

It represents the soldiers, sportsmen, warriors, surgeons, blacksmiths... ; the age of Mars goes from 42 to 50 years old.

Temperament : Bilious

Characterology : Emotive, Active, Primary type. It is a Choleric.

Mars in Cancer

The planet Mars indicates how you react to life concrete stimulations. It also describes your fighting spirit, your abilities to stand for yourself and to take action. With Mars in Cancer, it is mainly within your familiar and intimate realm that you express your will. You may appear as an exceedingly flexible person, with no ascendancy over the external world. But this is misleading; when your life setting or your entourage are endangered, you may be forceful. You limit the scope of your action to the areas you control very well and you do not fight against things you are not deeply involved in. You prefer to dedicate your energy to struggling against circumstances that may endanger your environment. You concentrate your strength and this is probably the cause of your rare but dreaded interventions.

Mars Dominant

If Mars is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Marsian: in your hand-to-hand struggle for life, you demonstrate an acute and active sense of confrontation with the world, with other people, and with your own destiny. You need to take action and to fight for your projects and your desires. You perceive all situations with deep intensity, and you react to the here and now without bothering to step back in order to ensure that events are under your control. You take up challenges with excessive foolhardiness as a consequence of your impulsiveness. However, better than anyone else, you know how to mobilise your resources in case of crisis. You take action whenever it is necessary to do so, and you are present in a timely manner. With Mars, your attitudes are dictated by the realities of the moment, by your emotions, and by everything which proved to have worked in the past. When this dominant is not well integrated, it may bring about an aggressive or impulsive behaviour. Therefore, you must learn to control your hyper-sensitivity and your fits of temper. You are also endowed with Marsian qualities: the fighting spirit and the taste for duel without which one may find oneself overwhelmed by events. When this willpower is well channelled, its precious energy enables to cope with all sorts of contingencies. There are a thousand ways to win, and a thousand challenges to take up with the enthusiasm and the dynamism which make life so worthy. A certain idea of life which is wild, passionate, and in tune with events.

Interpretation of the 25° Cancer symbolic degree

"Meteors and shooting stars strike the night sky above a waterfall." (Janduz version)

Generous, dreamy, and artistic character loathing daily routine and dull events. Like the meteor, one follows a personal and quite unusual path. Life is brilliant, and achievements are numerous, though irregular and non-lasting. If one reaches a top position, there is a danger that one is toppled from power. Nevertheless, there is nothing to worry about because a good star is constantly protecting the person influenced by this degree, and life is much happier than that of most people.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Jupiter 0°20' Pisces

Jupiter Aspects
Moon inconjunction Jupiter orb +0°13'
Jupiter trine Uranus orb +4°29'
Sun sextile Jupiter orb -4°04'
Mercury semi-sextile Jupiter orb +0°12'
Jupiter square Saturn orb +7°43'
Planets: Jupiter

Jupiter represents expansion and power, benevolence, large vision and generosity. Its element is Air, it is hot and moist, and it rules Sagittarius and Pisces (along with Neptune), is in exaltation with Cancer and is in analogy with the hips and endocrinal system.

It represents the governors, magistrates, professors, religious men too; the age of Jupiter goes from 50 to 55 or even 70 years old.

Temperament : Sanguine

Characterology : Emotive, Active, Primary type; it is an extrovert Choleric. Actually the humid version of Mars, inclined to action like him.

Jupiter in Pisces

The planet Jupiter symbolizes expansion, broadness and generosity. Jupiter is associated with the functions of synthesis, enthusiasm and optimism. In your natal chart, his house position is more important than his sign position because, like Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, he is a slow planet. Many people born in the same period have Jupiter in the same sign. This is the reason why the sign occupied here is less meaningful than when it is occupied by the so-called fast planets, i.e. the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars. Therefore, some caution is to be exercised as you read what follows. Jupiter in Pisces increases your natural generosity and your dedication capacity. Your empathy is strong and you are inclined to offer your strength and your enthusiasm to the most deprived people and to give unlimited assistance to others. Your imagination is powerful and your feelings may flare up easily: with your sensitivity on the alert and your unbridled affectivity, you belong to the category of people who intuitively detect other people’s sufferings and most valuable qualities of the heart, as if you were a human radar.

Jupiter Dominant

If Jupiter is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Jupiterian: because this planet brings about a keen interest in social and professional success, the Tradition considers it to be beneficial. Indeed, you know how to adjust to events and to jump at the chance when it arises. The members of you entourage gladly entrust you with high responsibilities because they are often impressed by your learning skills and your adaptation abilities as you deal with new structures and new languages. What is the secret of your good star? It is your self-confidence which wins public support. Now, what is the secret of your charm? Definitely, enthusiasm, euphoria, and exaltation. Exaggeration also. When this dominant is well integrated, it is a factor of affluence and optimism, and a certain degree of joviality enables you to easily fit into various spheres. It constitutes your main asset to manage your life. However, you must at times curb your desire for integration, lest your sense of opportunity turns into extreme opportunism. Here also, the key to success lies in a correct estimate of everyone's chances and possibilities. Although management is one of your forte, and you can adjust your objectives to current realities better than other people, you lack the hindsight which enables you to avoid short-term vagaries and daily fluctuations. If you strive too much to adapt, you run a risk of betraying yourself. This is the other traditional side of the coin with "The Greater Benefic"!

Interpretation of the 0° Pisces symbolic degree

"A human being, half-male and half-female, stands in front of an office door. Nearby, a young couple is about to take place at a table where a sumptuous meal is served." (Janduz version)

Pleasant, sociable, and loyal character. One always readily adjusts to the members of one's entourage in order to create harmonious living conditions. This applies particularly to conjugal life. One can achieve success in business or in the arts. Associations are highly favoured because, as symbolised by the first personage of the image, one knows perfectly well how to blend opposite elements and turn them into complementary assets.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Saturn 22°36' Я Scorpio

Saturn Aspects
Mars trine Saturn orb -3°14'
Venus trine Saturn orb -6°45'
Saturn opposite Pluto orb -8°24'
Mercury trine Saturn orb +7°55'
Jupiter square Saturn orb +7°43'
Planets: Saturn

Saturn represents concentration, effort, perseverance, time, the hard reality, inevitable consequences. Earth is its element, it is cold and dry, and it rules Capricorn and Aquarius (along with Uranus), is in exaltation in Libra and is in analogy with the bones (skeleton) and the skin.

It represents the grandparents, old people, scientists, knowledgeable men, Saturn corresponds to old age; it goes from 70 years old until death.

Temperament : Nervous

Characterology : Non-Emotive, Active and Secondary type or Emotive, non Active and Secondary type or sometimes Non-Emotive, non Active and Secondary type; it is a Phlegmatic, a Sentimental or an Empathic type

Saturn in Scorpio

The planet Saturn symbolizes contraction, effort, time, limitation and concentration. Saturn eliminates anything that is not authentic, sooner or later. It is impossible to cheat him as he gives an irresistible desire to form a coherent whole with oneself, in responsible and wise ways. He is the great purifier. He represents our limitations but also our truth. In your natal chart, the house position where Saturn is posited is more important than his sign position because, like Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, he is a slow planet. Many people born in the same period have Saturn in the same sign. This is the reason why the sign occupied here is less meaningful than when it is occupied by the so-called fast planets, i.e. the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars. Therefore, some caution is to be exercised as you read what follows. Saturn in Scorpio reinforces your resistance. Your demand for precision and your will to comprehend all things may make you seem a bit tough or harsh to your entourage. Because you are fond of precision, you are interested in exact sciences; your capacity to understand mysteries is strengthened. You learn to control your instincts, even though it may be detrimental to your spontaneity.

Saturn Dominant

If Saturn is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Saturnian: you gladly leave to other people the decision to take life as it comes. As far as you are concerned, you prefer to take advantage of your experiences in order to discover, to grow, and to question yourself.

Interpretation of the 22° Scorpio symbolic degree

"A man sows against the wind." (Janduz version)

Hard-working but stubborn character totally lacking good practical sense. One has too much self-confidence and believes that one knows better than anyone else. Despite repeated failures, one keeps on making the same mistakes and waste a lot of energy and efforts. One must seek advice from wise and experienced people.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Uranus 4°50' Cancer

Uranus Aspects
Jupiter trine Uranus orb +4°29'
Moon square Uranus orb -4°42'
Mercury square Uranus orb +4°17'
Planets: Uranus

Uranus represents individual freedom, originality, independence, marginality, avant guard inspiration, ultra modernism. Fire is its element, it is dry, and it rules Aquarius, is in exaltation with Scorpio and is in analogy with the brain and the nerves.

It represents inventors, odd characters, revolutionaries.

Temperament : Nervous to the extreme

Characterology : Emotive, Active, Secondary type; it is a Passionate type.

Uranus in Cancer

The planet Uranus symbolizes originality, independence and cerebral energy bursting suddenly. Uranus triggers the irresistible need for freedom that we have in ourselves. Uranus tends to break the constraints that have become unbearable and gives us the courage and the will to get rid of what has become a burden; when he is well aspected, he also indicates genius. In your natal chart, Uranus’ house position is more important than his sign position because, like Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Pluto, he is a slow planet. Many people born in the same period have Uranus in the same sign. This is the reason why the sign occupied here is less meaningful than when it is occupied by the so-called fast planets, i.e. the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars. Therefore, some caution is to be exercised as you read what follows. The sign positions of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto have a collective meaning. They do not influence your personality, unless they are involved in numerous aspects or when they emphasize a personal point of your natal chart such as your Ascendant’s ruler, an angular planet, i.e. a planet near the Ascendant, the Midheaven, the Nadir or the Descendant. In such cases, the activity of the slow planet is very highlighted. Uranus in Cancer tends to intellectualize your emotions and to detach you from affective considerations. He may bring about sudden surprises and changes within your family or your home in several instances of your life.

Uranus Dominant

If Uranus is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Uranian: personal values are prevailing. Inner certainties fuel an inflexible will and a desire to call attention on yourself as well as to follow your beliefs through. This planet prompts you to behave with determination, to put forward your own truth, and to start your personal revolution. More than other people, you are willing to keep some degree of autonomy in all circumstances, and you often display an individualistic nature. In order to achieve your ideal of freedom and independence, you may act like a despot as you try to convince and to impose your views, whether smoothly or forcefully. Regardless of the flexibility of your comportment, some situations demand an absolute firmness as well as uncompromising, frank and straightforward attitudes. People may criticise you for your intransigence and say that you are a hardliner. Outsider's opinions don't matter! The most important thing is that you act in all conscience and reach your primary objectives. More than anyone else, you know how to use your willpower and to focus your energy on a precise aim, relentlessly, whatever the consequences might be. In the chapter of qualities, let's mention a definite sense of responsibility, an innovative mind open to techniques and modern ideas, as well as a natural self-discipline which overcomes many an obstacle. Therefore, people are well-advised not to hound you into a corner.

Interpretation of the 4° Cancer symbolic degree

"A shrub, untied from its stake, grows askew." (Janduz version)

Caring, trusting, and sweet character unaware of human nature's flaws. In females' charts, this degree indicates disappointment in love owing to misplaced trust. In males' charts, women are the source of sorrow. For both genders, travels and trade are protected and bring about prosperity. Nevertheless, if in the natal chart, the Moon is in conjunction with this degree and in hard aspect with Saturn, it portends dangers related to water. A precocious marriage is possible.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Neptune 13°02' Aries

Neptune Aspects
Neptune semi-sextile Pluto orb +1°10'
Planets: Neptune

Neptune represents escapism, impressionability, daydreaming, delusions, carelessness, deception or intuition, dishonesty or inspiration, telepathy. Water is its element, it is moist, it rules Pisces, is in exaltation in Cancer, though some authors say it is Leo, and is in analogy with the vegetative system.

It represents dreamers, mediums, magicians, merchants of illusion, drug addicts.

Temperament : rather Lymphatic

Characterology : Emotive, non Active, Primary or Secondary type; it is a Sentimental, or sometimes Amorphous type.

Neptune in Aries

The planet Neptune symbolizes extreme receptivity, intense emotional sharpness, impressionability and inspiration; it is the planet of mediums, mystics and religious faith. In an astrological chart, it indicates dilution, vagueness, understanding one’s environment through emotions and the absence of clear and determined limits and structures. In your natal chart, Neptune’s house position is more important than his sign position because, like Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Pluto, he is a slow planet. Many people born in the same period have Neptune in the same sign. This is the reason why the sign occupied here is less meaningful than when it is occupied by the so-called fast planets, i.e. the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars. Therefore, some caution is to be exercised as you read what follows. The sign positions of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto have a collective meaning. They do not influence your personality, unless they are involved in numerous aspects or when they emphasize a personal point of your natal chart such as your Ascendant’s ruler, an angular planet, i.e. a planet near the Ascendant, the Midheaven, the Nadir or the Descendant. In such cases, the activity of the slow planet is very highlighted. Neptune in Aries dilutes the individualistic side of this enthusiastic but primary sign and increases an understanding of the world that is more detached and more intuitive.

Neptune Dominant

If Neptune is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Neptunian: your intuition is highly developed. You are of a contemplative nature, and you are particularly receptive to ambiances, places, and people. You gladly cultivate the art of letting-go, and you allow the natural unfolding of events to construct your world. You follow your inspirations, for better or for worse. At times, you display an extraordinary clairvoyance gift. You seem to be able to read your subconscious like a book, and you track down subtle underlying mechanisms, flaws, or open breaches. This innate intuition might explain the strokes of good luck which the Neptunian is sometimes credited with. However, you may also be the victim of illusions and misleading intuitions. You are an idealist, and you let your deepest aspirations prevail over the realities of the moment. Then, you set off in quest of some quixotic objective, living like a Don Quixote who relentlessly pursues an impossible dream. You have a great talent for psychology and the mysteries of the human soul. Since you instinctively perceive people's intents and motivations, as you swim in the complexity of human nature, you feel in your element. The subtlety of your perceptiveness is the source of both special affections and irrevocable rejections. What is the danger of such a dominant? If it is not offset by other influences in your natal chart, you may not have an iron will. Your trump card is your instinct, which may be developed to the extent that it becomes clairvoyance.

Interpretation of the 13° Aries symbolic degree

"A strong and prosperous man comes out of a cellar and raises a glass full of wine as for a toast. In front of him, a lion and a dog exchange friendly looks." (Janduz version)

Refined, faithful, and generous character fully aware of one's worth. One is unanimously respected and stands on an equal footing with the powerful figures who grant their protection and trust. Success can be achieved in agriculture, especially wine growing, the art of cooking, the military, or the judiciary. Noble deeds are highly rewarded and attract numerous loyal friends.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Pluto 14°12' Taurus

Pluto Aspects
Venus sextile Pluto orb -1°38'
Moon sesqui-quadrate Pluto orb +0°55'
Mars quintile Pluto orb -0°21'
Saturn opposite Pluto orb -8°24'
Neptune semi-sextile Pluto orb +1°10'
Mercury semi-square Pluto orb -1°20'
Planets: Pluto

Pluto represents deep transformations, mutations and eliminations, sexuality and magnetism, power and secrets, destruction with a view to regeneration, the phoenix rising from the ashes. Its element is indefinite; burning (like lava in fusion ?), it rules Scorpio, is in exaltation in Pisces and is in analogy with the sexual organs and excretion.

It represents dictators, sadistic people, violent characters, is instinctive and powerful but also mysterious with hidden strengths.

Temperament : rather Bilious

Characterology : Emotive or non-Emotive, Active, Primary type; it is a Passionate Choleri typec.

Pluto in Taurus

The planet Pluto symbolizes deep disruptions and upheavals, domination and sexual instincts, and the inner power we have in ourselves. Pluto destroys in order to reconstruct and he provokes painful crises that are needed in metamorphosis. Pluto is our deepest instincts’ brutal force. It is the hidden and unconscious violence that can explode in us with incredible intensity before being projected in our actions; in itself, the planet is not negative: the might and the intensity of its energy are beyond the conceivable but it can be funnelled. Pluto is the only possibility we have at our disposal to overcome our inner blocks and to eliminate outgrown situations that have become inextricable. Pluto’s energy is valuable because of its usefulness for the irreversible destruction of what constitutes a problem and not because of its negative side and its perversity. Pluto allows to reconstruct and to regenerate parts of our personality or whole stretches of our life, provided that we manage to funnel his wild energy and to step back. It is impossible to tame this energy, given its essence. However, it is possible to take advantage of it for a precise aim, through a temporary identification of some parts of us with this energy. In such a case, the outcome is our final evolution and even, our transformation. In your natal chart, Pluto’s house position is more important than his sign position because, like Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, Pluto is a slow planet. Many people born in the same period have Pluto in the same sign. This is the reason why the sign occupied here is less meaningful than when it is occupied by the so-called fast planets, i.e. the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars. Therefore, some caution is to be exercised as you read what follows. The sign positions of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto have a collective meaning. They do not influence your personality and they are not to be really taken into account, unless they are involved in numerous aspects or when they emphasize a personal point of your natal chart such as your Ascendant’s ruler, an angular planet, i.e. a planet near the Ascendant, the Midheaven, the Nadir or the Descendant. In such cases, the activity of the slow planet is very highlighted. Pluto in Taurus exacerbates your sensuality, your possessiveness, your jealousy and the domination instinct that are linked to this sign.

Pluto Dominant

If Pluto is part of your natal chart's planetary dominants, in astrology, you are said to be a Plutonian: you sometimes feel like a foreigner who does not belong to the world, to its laws, and its concerns. The rules of life in society are not necessarily yours. You are interested in what is unknown and in the subtle laws of a hidden order. So, you take malicious pleasure in ridiculing the patterns you find too simplistic or too rigid. You also revel in underlining the limits of explanations you deem too common. There is something unconventional about the way you are, the way you think, and the way you act. What is your specificity made of? Is it an extraordinary partner? A life off the beaten path? Or do you only distance yourself from conventional morals? In any case, you have the feeling, sometimes quite vague, that you come from nowhere, and that you do not belong to any definite group... In short, it means that you cannot be simplified in order to conform to existing models. The gap between you and ordinary mortals is also an element of your strength. Your deep clear-sightedness, firstly, enables you to put things into perspective and to grant them only the attention they deserve. Your other remarkable asset is your capacity to intervene from behind the scenes, to secretly organise events, and to bring about the desirable outcome without seeming to impose or to dictate anything. However, you must still overcome one of the major difficulties of this dominant, which is to get people to accept your difference and to smoothly fit into your environment.

Interpretation of the 14° Taurus symbolic degree

"A middle aged man seated at a table with a big book and scientific tools watches seven ibises flying by his window." (Janduz version)

Patient, taciturn, and self-confident character. One is an avid learner and enjoys studying in order to fully understand the mysteries of nature and of human beings. Although one is very much sought after and often surrounded by numerous friends, one prefers to be alone and to dedicate long hours of work to researches. One may live abroad with a view to discovering different civilisations and lifestyles, or because one is forced to flee one's homeland. In any case, success can be achieved in natural sciences and in all professions related to the earth such as agriculture, agronomy, real estate, etc.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

If you wish, you can receive immediately in your mailbox your detailed astrological portrait, a nice gift for yourself or for your close friends and relatives, who will deeply appreciate it.

Chiron 24°23' Pisces
Asteroids: Chiron

Chiron is almost renowned and used everywhere. Most astrologers consider it as a kind of "mediator" between Saturn and outer planets. Consequently, Chiron is of Saturn's nature and at the same time is influenced by Uranus, the first slow-moving planet. Astrologically, it symbolizes wisdom, patience and the faculty to reduce others' sufferings: it is said to be the "great healer" of the zodiac. Like all the secondary bodies, it must be in close conjunction with planets or angles in order to fully express its action.

Interpretation of the 24° Pisces symbolic degree

"A crown at the top of a sword is planted behind a layman who throws stones." (Janduz version)

Noble, clear-sighted, and fair character endowed with excellent strategic skills and unwavering morals. Regardless of one's origins, one is ensured to achieve success in the career chosen, particularly in the military, diplomacy, or a top level government office. One knows how to triumph over the fiercest enmities using a smart strategy, and one resorts to negotiations or sheer might, depending on the necessities of the situation. In spite of crises, struggles, and dangers, this degree promises victory.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

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Asteroids: Ceres

Ceres, the biggest of the four minor asteroids used besides Chiron, is associated with the mythological goddess of growing plants and harvest and also symbolizes physical constitution, vitality and fertility. She's also known as Demeter, according to the astrologer Zipporah Dobyns, linked to the symbolism of the mother but in a less emotive and more physical way than the Moon. Ceres is thought to be the ruler of Virgo, in exaltation in Gemini, in exile in Pisces and in fall in Sagittarius. Keywords associated with Ceres could be order, practical sense, worry, precision, modesty, method, sobriety, motherhood, fertility, the Earth: a kind of a more cerebral Moon...

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Asteroids: Pallas

Pallas is sometimes used in modern Astrology: she represents intelligence, abstract and global thinking talents. It is usually considered to be a determining element in political strategy.

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Asteroids: Juno

Juno is the asteroid corresponding to the adaptation to the marital partner and to the defence of individual rights; it is thus used in the field of marriage.

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Asteroids: Vesta

Vesta is rarely used and brings the ability to efficiently devote oneself to a cause.

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True North Node 23°12' Я Virgo
North Node

The North Node (True Node here) represents the goals that must be achieved during life, in the karmic sense according to some traditions. Its position in house indicates in what field an effort is necessary in order to evolve. The North Node is often called the Dragon's head, it is usually considered beneficial, a bit like Jupiter with the planets. The Lunar nodes are fictional points and not actual heavenly bodies: they are the intersections of the Moon with the Ecliptic (the path made by the Sun in its orbit as seen from the Earth). The axis of the Lunar nodes moves 19 degrees each year, namely a bit more than three minutes each day.

The South Node is diametrically opposed to the North Node, therefore it faces it (it's not drawn here, it's the same symbol but upside down). It symbolizes what has already been achieved or acquired, in a karmic sense: it's the past from which it's advised to move on in order to progress. The South Node is rather negative, of a Saturnian nature: the experience through suffering.

Interpretation of the 23° Virgo symbolic degree

"A bare-chested man is seated on a rocky promontory overlooking the sea and, protecting his eyes with his hand, watches a trapped wild goose striving to free itself." (Janduz version)

Misanthropic, independent, and selfish character. One may be estranged from one's family, or becomes an exile or an outlaw. The goose portends some deprivation of liberty, often owing to lack of morals, politics, or just bad luck. This degree indicates potential eye problems or impaired sight.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

True Lilith 20°23' Sagittarius
Lilith

Lilith or the Dark Moon (True Lilith here) represents the uncrossable threshold, taboos, the individual's provocative and fascinating side, including on a sexual level. She symbolizes violence and "untameability", the radical and deep-seated refusal to submit. The keywords for Lilith can be sterility, sadism, perversity, castration, sadomasochism, eroticism, orgasm, forbidden fantasies, marginality, cruelty; redemption, illumination, rebelliousness... Lilith's opposite point is called Priapus; it is the Lunar perigee, the position where the Moon is closest to the Earth. It symbolizes man's primitive nature, the horror hidden in our deepest self; masochism, extreme sensuality, impulsiveness, irrationality and excess. Physically speaking, the Dark Moon is the focal point unoccupied by the Earth: it is not a concrete body but a mathematical point.

Interpretation of the 20° Sagittarius symbolic degree

"In front of two intertwined triangles surmounted by a third one, a magus wearing his sacerdotal headdress utters an incantation." (Janduz version)

Withdrawn, contemplative, and spiritual character endowed with powerful psychic powers. One revels in solitude and avoids socialising. Success and fame can be achieved in human sciences or in research. However, one is unlikely to become very rich. If the natal chart indicates dishonesty, this degree may describe a charlatan.

N.B.: symbolic degrees belong to a branch of fatalistic astrology. Their interpretation must be regarded with the utmost caution, especially given the fact that different authors give different meanings to symbolic degrees. This is the reason why they are not included in our Astrotheme reports.

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Part of Fortune

The Part of Fortune is an ancient concept, used by Ptolemy and other astrologers before him. Firstly, it has nothing to do with fortune! In modern astrology, it is actually used to enhance a planet or angle when in close conjunction with it: it thus amplifies the meaning associated to the point affected by its presence. It is calculated in the following way:

Part of Fortune = AS + Moon - Sun (it is the Moons position when the Sun rises)

The classical Part of Fortune, of which the calculus method is unchanged whether in a diurnal or nocturnal chart, is usually distinguished from the diurnal/nocturnal Part of Fortune which is calculated by the formula AS + Sun - Moon for a nocturnal chart, and AS + Moon - Sun in a diurnal chart.

We currently use the latter formula for our astrological programmes.

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Ascendant or House I

The First House or Ascendant represents one's behaviour in the eyes of others, and also one's health. It corresponds to the way the individual acts in the world. It is the image of the personality seen by others and the person's visible behaviour expressed outwardly. The 1st House is in analogy with Aries and thus Mars too, and then the Sun. It is an angular house, the most important one with the Midheaven, maybe even more so due to its link with the body and health.

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Midheaven or House X

The Tenth House still called the Midheaven, is the highest point amidst the houses, at the top of the chart, in the South, and relates to destiny in general and career (and not daily work as meant by the Sixth House). The Midheaven represents our achievements and goals in the social sphere, our social position in society, and becomes more and more important as we get older. It is in analogy with Capricorn and Saturn. The Tenth House is the most important angular house along with the Ascendant.

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House I (AC)

The First House or Ascendant represents one's behaviour in the eyes of others and also one's health. It corresponds to the way the individual acts in the world. It is the image of the personality as seen by others and the person's visible behaviour expressed outwardly. The 1st House is in analogy with Aries and thus Mars too and then the Sun. It is an angular house, the most important one with the Midheaven, maybe even more so due to its link with the body and health; the Ascendant is as important as the Sun in a natal chart.

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House II

The Second House is the sphere of material security, the money we earn, our possessions, also in a symbolic meaning (close people etc). It is in analogy with Taurus and Venus. It is a succedent house, quite important.

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House III

The Third House is the sphere of social and intellectual apprenticeship, studies, relationships with close people and surroundings, short trips, light-hearted and quick contacts, correspondences. It is in analogy with Gemini and Mercury. It's a cadent house, less important than the angular and succedent ones.

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House IV (IC)

The Fourth House also called Immum Coeli is the sphere of inner emotions, family, the father, home and roots, but also the home one creates. It's Home Sweet Home, security and cocoon. It is in analogy with Cancer and the Moon. It's an angular and important house.

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House V

The Fifth House is the sphere of pleasures and love affairs (but not commitment or marriage), creations and entertainments, children, arts and game. It is in analogy with Leo and the Sun. It's a succedent and quite important house.

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House VI

The Sixth House is the sphere of apprenticeship and effort in the work environment, daily life, health on a daily basis and not operations or long-term diseases, relationships with co-workers or subordinates, desire for improvement, analysis and detail. It is in analogy with Virgo and Mercury. It is a cadent house, less important than the angular and succedent ones.

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House VII (DS)

The Seventh House also called the Descendant (in front of the Ascendant) is the sphere of partnership, marriage, contracts, relationships with others, the outer world. It is in analogy with Libra and Venus, and Saturn to a lesser extent. It is an angular and important house.

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House VIII

The Eighth House is the sphere of emotional security, the depths of the self, secrets and paranormal, transcendence, sexuality, mysteries, upheavals, surgical operations, others' money (investments, inheritances), crises, transformation after evolution, death. It is in analogy with Scorpio and Pluto, and Mars to a lesser extent. It is a succedent and quite important house.

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House IX

The Ninth House is the sphere of high studies, both physical and mental journeys (philosophy, spirituality), rebelliousness, changes of scenery, desire for dealing with the unknown. It is in analogy with Sagittarius and Jupiter. It is a cadent house, less important than the angular and succedent ones.

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House X (MC)

The Tenth House still called the Midheaven, is the highest point amidst the houses, at the top of the chart, in the South, and relates to destiny in general and career (and not daily work as meant by the Sixth House). The Midheaven represents our achievements and goals in the social sphere, our social position in society, and becomes more and more important as we get older. It is in analogy with Capricorn and Saturn. The Tenth House is the most important angular house along with the Ascendant.

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House XI

The Eleventh House is the sphere of friendship and protection, projects, search for social acceptance and security, collective and humanitarian actions. It is in analogy with Aquarius and Uranus, and Saturn to a lesser extent. It's a succedent and quite important house.

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House XII

The Twelfth House is the sphere of hidden things, enemies, closed or remote places (hospital, prison, convent etc.), ordeals, secrecy, solitude, long-term illnesses but also sincere devotion and genuine compassion. It is in analogy with Pisces and Neptune.


Caption
Légende des aspects
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Opposites and Squares
Trines and Sextiles
Semi-Squares and Sesqui-Quadrates
Semi-Sextiles, Quintiles and Bi-Quintiles
Inconjunctions
 
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Biography of Wilbur Wright

The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two Americans who are generally credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903. They are also officially credited worldwide through the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the standard-setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics, as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight." In the two years afterward, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. Although not the first to build and fly experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing flight possible.

The brothers' fundamental breakthrough was their invention of three-axis control, which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and to maintain its equilibrium. This method became standard and remains standard on fixed-wing aircraft of all kinds. From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused on unlocking the secrets of control to conquer "the flying problem," rather than developing more powerful engines as some other experimenters did. Their careful wind tunnel tests produced better aeronautical data than any before, enabling them to design and build wings and propellers more effective than any before. Their U.S. patent 821,393 claims the invention of a system of aerodynamic control that manipulates a flying machine's surfaces.

They gained the mechanical skills essential for their success by working for years in their shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery. Their work with bicycles in particular influenced their belief that an unstable vehicle like a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice. From 1900 until their first powered flights in late 1903, they conducted extensive glider tests that also developed their skills as pilots. Their bicycle shop employee Charlie Taylor became an important part of the team, building their first aircraft engine in close collaboration with the brothers.

The Wright brothers' status as inventors of the airplane has been subject to counter-claims by various parties. Much controversy persists over the many competing claims of early aviators.

Childhood
Orville Wilbur

The Wright brothers were two of seven children born to Milton Wright (1828–1917) and Susan Catherine Koerner (1831–1889). Wilbur Wright was born near Millville, Indiana in 1867; Orville in Dayton, Ohio in 1871. The brothers never married. The other Wright siblings were named Reuchlin (1861–1920), Lorin (1862–1939), Katharine (1874–1929), and twins Otis and Ida (born 1870, died in infancy). In elementary school, Orville was given to mischief and was once expelled. In 1878 their father, who traveled often as a bishop in the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, brought home a toy "helicopter" for his two younger sons. The device was based on an invention of French aeronautical pioneer Alphonse Penaud. Made of paper, bamboo and cork with a rubber band to twirl its rotor, it was about a foot long. Wilbur and Orville played with it until it broke, then built their own. In later years, they pointed to their experience with the toy as the initial spark of their interest in flying.

Early career and research

Both brothers attended high school, but did not receive diplomas. The family's abrupt move in 1884 from Richmond, Indiana to Dayton (where the family had lived during the 1870s) prevented Wilbur from receiving his diploma after finishing four years of high school.

In the winter of 1885–86 Wilbur was accidentally struck in the face by a hockey stick while playing an ice-skating game with friends, resulting in the loss of his front teeth. He had been vigorous and athletic until then, and although his injuries did not appear especially severe, he became withdrawn, and did not attend Yale as planned. Had he enrolled, his career might have taken a very different path than the extraordinary one he eventually followed with Orville. Instead, he spent the next few years largely housebound, caring for his mother who was terminally ill with tuberculosis and reading extensively in his father's library. He ably assisted his father during times of controversy within the Brethren Church but also expressed unease over his own lack of ambition.

Orville dropped out of high school after his junior year to start a printing business in 1889, having designed and built his own printing press with Wilbur's help. Wilbur shook off the lingering depression caused by his accident and joined the print shop, serving as editor while Orville was publisher of the weekly newspaper the West Side News, followed for only a few months by the daily Evening Item. One of their clients for printing jobs was Orville's friend and classmate in high school, Paul Laurence Dunbar, who rose to international acclaim as a ground-breaking African-American poet and writer. The Wrights printed the Dayton Tattler, a weekly newspaper that Dunbar edited for a brief period.

Capitalizing on the national bicycle craze, the brothers opened a repair and sales shop in 1892 (the Wright Cycle Exchange, later the Wright Cycle Company) and began manufacturing their own brand in 1896. They used this endeavor to fund their growing interest in flight. In the early or mid-1890s they saw newspaper or magazine articles and probably photographs of the dramatic glides by Otto Lilienthal in Germany. The year 1896 brought three important aeronautical events. In May, Smithsonian Institution Secretary Samuel Langley successfully flew an unmanned steam-powered model aircraft. In the summer, Chicago engineer and aviation authority Octave Chanute brought together several men who tested various types of gliders over the sand dunes along the shore of Lake Michigan. In August, Lilienthal was killed in the plunge of his glider. These events lodged in the consciousness of the brothers. In May 1899 Wilbur wrote a letter to the Smithsonian Institution requesting information and publications about aeronautics. Drawing on the work of Sir George Cayley, Chanute, Lilienthal, Leonardo da Vinci, and Langley, they began their mechanical aeronautical experimentation that year.

The Wright brothers always presented a unified image to the public, sharing equally in the credit for their invention. Biographers note, however, that Wilbur took the initiative in 1899–1900, writing of "my" machine and "my" plans before Orville became deeply involved when the first person singular became the plural "we" and "our". Author James Tobin asserts, "it is impossible to imagine Orville, bright as he was, supplying the driving force that started their work and kept it going from the back room of a store in Ohio to conferences with capitalists, presidents, and kings. Will did that. He was the leader, from the beginning to the end."

Ideas about control

Despite Lilienthal's fate, the brothers favored his strategy: to practice gliding in order to master the art of control before attempting motor-driven flight. The death of British aeronaut Percy Pilcher in another hang gliding crash in 1899 only reinforced their opinion that a reliable method of pilot control was the key to successful—and safe—flight. At the outset of their experiments they regarded control as the unsolved third part of "the flying problem". They believed sufficiently promising knowledge of the other two issues—wings and engines—already existed. The Wright brothers thus differed sharply from more experienced practitioners of the day, notably Ader, Maxim and Langley who built powerful engines, attached them to airframes equipped with unproven control devices, and expected to take to the air with no previous flying experience. Though agreeing with Lilienthal's idea of practice, the Wrights saw that his method of balance and control—shifting his body weight—was fatally inadequate. They were determined to find something better.

Based on observation, Wilbur concluded that birds changed the angle of the ends of their wings to make their bodies roll right or left. The brothers decided this would also be a good way for a flying machine to turn—to "bank" or "lean" into the turn just like a bird—and just like a person riding a bicycle, an experience with which they were thoroughly familiar. Equally important, they hoped this method would enable recovery when the wind tilted the machine to one side (lateral balance). They puzzled over how to achieve the same effect with man-made wings and eventually discovered wing-warping when Wilbur idly twisted a long inner-tube box at the bicycle shop.

Other aeronautical investigators regarded flight as if it were not so different from surface locomotion, except the surface would be elevated. They thought in terms of a ship's rudder for steering, while the flying machine remained essentially level in the air, as did a train or an automobile or a ship at the surface. The idea of deliberately leaning, or rolling, to one side seemed either undesirable or did not enter their thinking. Some of these other investigators, including Langley and Chanute, sought the elusive ideal of "inherent stability", believing the pilot of a flying machine would not be able to react quickly enough to wind disturbances to use mechanical controls effectively. The Wright brothers, on the other hand, wanted the pilot to have absolute control. For that reason, their early designs made no concessions toward built-in stability (such as dihedral wings). They deliberately designed their 1903 first powered flyer with anhedral (drooping) wings, which are inherently unstable, but less susceptible to upset by gusty sidewinds.

Flights

Toward flight

In July 1899 Wilbur put wing-warping to the test by building and flying a five-foot box kite in the approximate shape of a biplane. When the wings were warped, or twisted, one end would receive more lift and rise, starting a turn in the direction of the lower end. Warping was controlled by four lines attached to the kite. The lines led to two sticks held by the kite flyer, who tilted them in opposite directions to twist the wings and make the kite bank left or right.

In 1900 the brothers journeyed to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina to begin their manned gliding experiments. Wilbur chose the location based on a reply to his first letter to Octave Chanute, whose suggestions included the Atlantic coast for regular breezes and a soft sandy landing surface. Wilbur also requested and scrutinized U.S. Weather Bureau data, and selected Kitty Hawk after writing to the government meteorologist stationed there. The location, although remote, was closer to Dayton than other places Chanute had suggested, including California and Florida. The spot also gave them privacy from reporters, who had turned the 1896 Chanute experiments at Lake Michigan into something of a circus. Chanute visited them in camp each season from 1901 to 1903 and saw gliding experiments, but not the powered flights.

Gliders
Main article: Wright Glider

The Wrights based the design of their first full-size glider (as well as the 1899 kite) on the work of their recent predecessors, chiefly the Chanute-Herring biplane hang glider ("double-decker," as the Wrights called it), which flew well in the 1896 experiments near Chicago; and aeronautical data on lift that Lilienthal had published. The Wrights designed the wings with camber, a curvature of the top surface. The brothers did not discover this principle, but took advantage of it. The better lift of a cambered surface compared to a flat one was first discussed scientifically by Sir George Cayley. Lilienthal, whose work the Wrights carefully studied, used cambered wings in his gliders, proving in flight the advantage over flat surfaces. The wooden uprights between the wings of the Wright glider were braced by wires in their own adaptation of Chanute's modified "Pratt truss," a bridge-building design he used in his 1896 glider. The Wrights mounted the horizontal elevator in front of the wings rather than behind, apparently believing this feature would help avoid a nosedive and crash like the one that killed Lilienthal. (Later, when Brazilian aviation pioneer Santos-Dumont, flew his 14-bis in Paris in 1906, French newspapers dubbed the tail-first arrangement a "canard", due to the supposed resemblance to a duck in flight.) Wilbur incorrectly believed a tail was not necessary, and their first two gliders did not have one. According to some Wright biographers, Wilbur probably did all the gliding until 1902, perhaps to exercise his authority as older brother and to protect Orville from harm.
Glider Vital Statistics Wingspan Wing area Chord Camber Aspect ratio Length Weight
1900 17 ft 6 in (5.3 m) 165 sq ft (15 m2) 5 ft (2 m) 1/20 3.5:1 11 ft 6 in (3.5 m) 52 lb (24 kg)
1901 22 ft (7 m) 290 sq ft (27 m2) 7 ft (2.1 m) 1/12,*1/19 3:1 14 ft (4.3 m) 98 lb (44 kg)
1902 32 ft 1 in (9.8 m) 305 sq ft (28 m2) 5 ft (1.5 m) 1/20-1/24 6.5:1 17 ft (5.2 m) 112 lb (51 kg)

* (This airfoil caused severe stability problems; the Wrights modified the camber on-site.)

1900 Glider

The brothers flew the glider only a few days in the early autumn of 1900 at Kitty Hawk. In the first tests, probably October 3, Wilbur was aboard while the glider flew as a kite not far above the ground with men below holding tether ropes. Most of the kite tests were unpiloted with sandbags or chains (and even a local boy) as onboard ballast.
The 1900 glider. No photo was taken with a pilot aboard.

They tested wing-warping using control ropes from the ground. The glider was also tested unmanned while suspended from a small homemade tower. Wilbur (but not Orville) made about a dozen free glides on only a single day. For those tests, the brothers trekked four miles (6 km) south to the Kill Devil Hills, a group of sand dunes up to 100 feet (30 m) high (where they made camp in each of the next three years). Although the glider's lift was less than expected (causing most tests to be unmanned), the brothers were encouraged because the craft's front elevator worked well and they had no accidents. However, the small number of free glides meant they were not able to give wing-warping a true test.

The pilot lay flat on the lower wing, as planned, to reduce aerodynamic drag. As a glide ended, the pilot was supposed to lower himself to a vertical position through an opening in the wing and land on his feet with his arms wrapped over the framework. Within a few glides, however, they discovered the pilot could remain prone on the wing, headfirst, without undue danger when landing. They made all their flights in that position for the next five years.

1901 Glider

Hoping to improve lift, they built the 1901 glider with a much larger wing area and made 50 to 100 flights in July and August for distances of 20 to 400 ft (6 to 122 m). The glider stalled a few times, but the parachute effect of the forward elevator allowed Wilbur to make a safe flat or "pancake" landing, instead of a nose-dive. These incidents wedded the Wrights even more strongly to the canard design, which they did not give up until 1910. The glider, however, delivered two major disappointments. It produced only about one-third the lift calculated and sometimes failed to respond properly to wing-warping, turning opposite the direction intended—a problem later known as adverse yaw. On the trip home after their second season, Wilbur, stung with disappointment, remarked to Orville that man would fly, but not in their lifetimes.

The poor lift of the gliders led the Wrights to question the accuracy of Lilienthal's data, as well as the "Smeaton coefficient" of air pressure, which had been in existence for over 100 years and was part of the accepted equation for lift.
The Lift Equation L = k\;S\;V^2\;C_L

L = lift in pounds
k = coefficient of air pressure (Smeaton coefficient)
S = total area of lifting surface in square feet
V = velocity (headwind plus ground speed) in miles per hour
CL = coefficient of lift (varies with wing shape)

The Wrights—and Lilienthal—used the equation to calculate the amount of lift that wings of various sizes would produce. Based on measurements of lift and wind during the 1901 glider's kite and free flights, Wilbur believed (correctly, as tests later showed) that the Smeaton number was very close to 0.0033, not the traditionally used 60 percent larger 0.0054, which would exaggerate predicted lift.

Back home, furiously pedaling a strange-looking bicycle on neighborhood streets, they conducted makeshift open-air tests with a miniature Lilienthal airfoil and a counter-acting flat plate, which were both attached to a freely rotating third bicycle wheel mounted horizontally in front of the handlebars. Because the third wheel rotated against the airfoil instead of remaining motionless as the calculations predicted, the Wrights confirmed their suspicion that published data on lift were unreliable, and they decided to expand their investigation. They also realized that trial-and-error with different wings on full-size gliders was too costly and time-consuming. Putting aside the three-wheel bicycle, they built a six-foot wind tunnel in their shop and conducted systematic tests on miniature wings from October to December 1901. The "balances" they devised and mounted inside the tunnel to hold the wings looked crude, made of bicycle spokes and scrap metal, but were "as critical to the ultimate success of the Wright brothers as were the gliders." The devices allowed the brothers to balance lift against drag and accurately calculate the performance of each wing. They could also see which wings worked well as they looked through the viewing window in the top of the tunnel. Prior to beginning their wind tunnel experiments, Wilbur, at Chanute's invitation, traveled to Chicago to give a speech to the Western Society of Engineers on September 18, 1901. Wilbur's speech consisted of detailed accounts of his and Orville's glider experiments at Kitty Hawk up to the fall of 1901 and was complemented by a lantern slide show of photographs. Wilbur's speech was the first public account of the brothers' experiments.

1902 Glider
Lilienthal had made "whirling arm" tests on only a few wing shapes, and the Wrights mistakenly assumed the data would apply to their wings, which had a different shape. The Wrights took a huge step forward and made basic wind tunnel tests on 200 wings of many shapes and airfoil curves, followed by detailed tests on 38 of them. The tests, according to biographer Howard, "were the most crucial and fruitful aeronautical experiments ever conducted in so short a time with so few materials and at so little expense". An important discovery was the benefit of longer narrower wings: in aeronautical terms, wings with a larger aspect ratio (wingspan divided by chord—the wing's front-to-back dimension). Such shapes offered much better lift-to-drag ratio than the broader wings the brothers had tried so far.

With this knowledge, and a more accurate Smeaton number, the Wrights designed their 1902 glider. Using another crucial discovery from the wind tunnel, they made the airfoil flatter, reducing the camber (the depth of the wing's curvature divided by its chord). The 1901 wings had significantly greater curvature, a highly inefficient feature the Wrights copied directly from Lilienthal. Fully confident in their new wind tunnel results, the Wrights discarded Lilienthal's data, now basing their designs on their own calculations.

With characteristic caution, the brothers first flew the 1902 glider as an unmanned kite, as they had done with their two previous versions. Rewarding their wind tunnel work, the glider produced the expected lift. It also had a new structural feature: a fixed, rear vertical rudder, which the brothers hoped would eliminate turning problems.

By 1902 they realized that wing-warping created "differential drag" at the wingtips. Greater lift at one end of the wing also increased drag, which slowed that end of the wing, making the aircraft swivel—or "yaw"—so the nose pointed away from the turn. That was how the tailless 1901 glider behaved.

The improved wing design enabled consistently longer glides, and the rear rudder prevented adverse yaw—so effectively that it introduced a new problem. Sometimes when the pilot attempted to level off from a turn, the glider failed to respond to corrective wing-warping and persisted into a tighter turn. The glider would slide toward the lower wing, which hit the ground, spinning the aircraft around. The Wrights called this "well digging".

Orville apparently visualized that the fixed rudder resisted the effect of corrective wing-warping when attempting to level off from a turn. He wrote in his diary that on the night of October 2, "I studied out a new vertical rudder". The brothers then decided to make the rear rudder movable to solve the problem. They hinged the rudder and connected it to the pilot's warping "cradle", so a single movement by the pilot simultaneously controlled wing-warping and rudder deflection. Tests while gliding proved that the trailing edge of the rudder should be turned away from whichever end of the wings had more drag (and lift) due to warping. The opposing pressure produced by turning the rudder enabled corrective wing-warping to reliably restore level flight after a turn or a wind disturbance. Furthermore, when the glider banked into a turn, rudder pressure overcame the effect of differential drag and pointed the nose of the aircraft in the direction of the turn, eliminating adverse yaw.

In short, the Wrights discovered the true purpose of the movable vertical rudder. Its role was not to change the direction of flight, but rather, to aim or align the aircraft correctly during banking turns and when leveling off from turns and wind disturbances. The actual turn—the change in direction—was done with roll control using wing-warping. The principles remained the same when ailerons superseded wing-warping.

With their new method the Wrights achieved true control in turns for the first time on October 8, 1902, a major milestone. During September and October they made between 700 and 1,000 glides, the longest lasting 26 seconds and covering 622.5 feet (189.7 m). Hundreds of well-controlled glides after they made the rudder steerable convinced them they were ready to build a powered flying machine.

Thus did three-axis control evolve: wing-warping for roll (lateral motion), forward elevator for pitch (up and down) and rear rudder for yaw (side to side). On March 23, 1903, the Wrights applied for their famous patent for a "Flying Machine", based on their successful 1902 glider. Some aviation historians believe that applying the system of three-axis flight control on the 1902 glider was equal to, or even more significant, than the addition of power to the 1903 Flyer. Peter Jakab of the Smithsonian asserts that perfection of the 1902 glider essentially represents invention of the airplane.

Adding power

In 1903 the brothers built the powered Wright Flyer I, using their preferred material for construction, spruce, a strong and lightweight wood, and Pride of the West muslin for surface coverings. They also designed and carved their own wooden propellers, and had a purpose-built gasoline engine fabricated in their bicycle shop. They thought propeller design would be a simple matter and intended to adapt data from shipbuilding. However, their library research disclosed no established formulas for either marine or air propellers, and they found themselves with no sure starting point. They discussed and argued the question, sometimes heatedly, until they concluded that an aeronautical propeller is essentially a wing rotating in the vertical plane. On that basis, they used data from more wind tunnel tests to design their propellers. The finished blades were just over eight feet long, made of three laminations of glued spruce. The Wrights decided on twin "pusher" propellers (counter-rotating to cancel torque), which would act on a greater quantity of air than a single relatively slow propeller and not disturb airflow over the leading edge of the wings.

Wilbur made a March 1903 entry in his notebook indicating the prototype propeller was 66% efficient. Modern wind tunnel tests on reproduction 1903 propellers show they were more than 75% efficient under the conditions of the first flights, and actually had a peak efficiency of 82%. This is a remarkable achievement, considering that modern wooden propellers have a maximum efficiency of 85%.

The Wrights wrote to several engine manufacturers, but none met their need for a sufficiently lightweight powerplant. They turned to their shop mechanic, Charlie Taylor, who built an engine in just six weeks in close consultation with the brothers. To keep the weight low enough, the engine block was cast from aluminum, a rare practice for the time. The Wright/Taylor engine was a primitive version of modern fuel-injection systems, having no carburetor or fuel pump. Gasoline was gravity-fed into the crankcase through a rubber tube from the fuel tank mounted on a wing strut.

The propeller drive chains, resembling those of bicycles, were actually supplied by a manufacturer of heavy-duty automobile chain-drives. The Flyer cost less than a thousand dollars, in contrast to more than $50,000 in government funds given to Samuel Langley for his man-carrying Great Aerodrome. The Flyer had a wingspan of 40 ft (12 m), weighed 625 lb (283 kg) and sported a 12 horsepower (8.9 kW) 170 lb (77 kg) engine.

In camp at Kill Devil Hills, they suffered weeks of delays caused by broken propeller shafts during engine tests. After the shafts were replaced (requiring two trips back to Dayton), Wilbur won a coin toss and made a three-second flight attempt on December 14, 1903, stalling after takeoff and causing minor damage to the Flyer. In a message to their family, Wilbur referred to the trial as having "only partial success", stating "the power is ample, and but for a trifling error due to lack of experience with this machine and this method of starting, the machine would undoubtedly have flown beautifully." Following repairs, the Wrights finally took to the air on December 17, 1903, making two flights each from level ground into a freezing headwind gusting to 27 miles per hour (43 km/h). The first flight, by Orville, of 120 feet (37 m) in 12 seconds, at a speed of only 6.8 miles per hour (10.9 km/h) over the ground, was recorded in a famous photograph. The next two flights covered approximately 175 feet (53 m) and 200 feet (61 m), by Wilbur and Orville respectively. Their altitude was about 10 feet (3.0 m) above the ground. Here is Orville Wright's account of the final flight of the day:

Wilbur started the fourth and last flight at just about 12 o'clock. The first few hundred feet were up and down, as before, but by the time three hundred feet had been covered, the machine was under much better control. The course for the next four or five hundred feet had but little undulation. However, when out about eight hundred feet the machine began pitching again, and, in one of its darts downward, struck the ground. The distance over the ground was measured to be 852 feet (260 m); the time of the flight was 59 seconds. The frame supporting the front rudder was badly broken, but the main part of the machine was not injured at all. We estimated that the machine could be put in condition for flight again in about a day or two.


Five people witnessed the flights: Adam Etheridge, John Daniels (who snapped the famous "first flight" photo using Orville's pre-positioned camera) and Will Dough, all of the U.S. government coastal lifesaving crew; area businessman W.C. Brinkley; and Johnny Moore, a teenaged boy who lived in the area. After the men hauled the Flyer back from its fourth flight, a powerful gust of wind flipped it over several times, despite the crew's attempt to hold it down. Severely damaged, the airplane never flew again. The brothers shipped it home, and years later Orville restored it, lending it to several U.S. locations for display, then to a British museum (see Smithsonian dispute below), before it was finally installed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. in 1948, its current residence.

The Wrights sent a telegram about the flights to their father, requesting that he "inform press." However, the Dayton Journal refused to publish the story, saying the flights were too short to be important. Meanwhile, against the brothers' wishes, a telegraph operator leaked their message to a Virginia newspaper, which concocted a highly inaccurate news article that was reprinted the next day in several newspapers elsewhere, including Dayton. The Wrights issued their own factual statement to the press in January. Nevertheless, the flights did not create public excitement—if people even knew about them—and the news soon faded. (In Paris, however, Aero Club of France members, already stimulated by Chanute's reports of Wright gliding successes, took the news more seriously and increased their efforts to catch up to the brothers.)

Trouble establishing legitimacy

In 1904 the Wrights built the Flyer II. They decided to avoid the expense of travel and bringing supplies to the Outer Banks and set up an airfield at Huffman Prairie, a cow pasture eight miles (13 km) northeast of Dayton. They received permission to use the field rent-free from owner and bank president Torrance Huffman. They invited reporters to their first flight attempt of the year on May 23, on the condition that no photographs be taken. Engine troubles and slack winds prevented any flying, and they could manage only a very short hop a few days later with fewer reporters present. Some scholars of the Wrights speculate the brothers may have intentionally failed to fly in order to disinterest reporters in their experiments. Whether that is true is not known, but after their poor showing local newspapers virtually ignored them for the next year and a half. The Wrights were glad to be free from the distraction of reporters. The absence of newsmen also reduced the chance of competitors learning their methods. After the Kitty Hawk powered flights, the Wrights made a decision to begin withdrawing from the bicycle business so they could devote themselves to creating and marketing a practical airplane. The decision was financially risky, since they were neither wealthy nor government-funded (unlike other experimenters such as Ader, Maxim, Langley and Santos-Dumont). They did not have the luxury of giving away their invention; it was to be their livelihood. Thus, their secrecy intensified, encouraged by advice from their patent attorney, Henry Toulmin, not to reveal details of their machine.

At Huffman Prairie, lighter winds and lower air density than in Kitty Hawk (due to Ohio's higher altitude and higher temperatures) made takeoffs very difficult, and they had to use a much longer starting rail, stretching to hundreds of feet, compared to the 60-foot (18 m) rail at Kitty Hawk. During the spring and summer they suffered many hard landings, real crackups, repeated Flyer damage, and bodily bumps and bruises. On August 13, making an unassisted takeoff, Wilbur finally exceeded their best Kitty Hawk effort with a flight of 1,300 feet (400 m). Then they decided to use a weight-powered catapult to make takeoffs easier and tried it for the first time on September 7. On September 20, 1904, Wilbur flew the first complete circle in history by a manned heavier-than-air powered machine, covering 4,080 feet (1,244 m) in about a minute and a half. Their two best flights were November 9 by Wilbur and December 1 by Orville, each exceeding five minutes and covering nearly three miles in almost four circles. By the end of the year the brothers had accumulated about 50 minutes in the air in 105 flights over the rather soggy 85 acre pasture, which, remarkably, is virtually unchanged today from its original condition and is now part of Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park, adjacent to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Despite progress in 1904, the Flyer was still frequently out of control. The Wrights scrapped the battered and much-repaired airplane, but saved the engine, and in 1905 built a new Flyer III, which included an important design change. The brothers installed a separate control for the rear rudder instead of linking the rudder to the wing-warping "cradle" as before. Each of the three axes—pitch, roll and yaw—now had its own independent control. Nevertheless, this Flyer offered the same marginal performance as the first two. Its maiden flight was June 23 and the first several flights were no longer than 10 seconds. After Orville suffered a bone-jarring and potentially fatal crash on July 14, they rebuilt the Flyer with the forward elevator and rear rudder both enlarged and placed several feet farther away from the wings. These modifications greatly improved stability and control, setting the stage for a series of six dramatic "long flights" ranging from 17 to 38 minutes and 11 to 24 miles (39 km) around the three-quarter mile course over Huffman Prairie between September 26 and October 5. Wilbur made the last and longest flight, 24.5 miles (39.4 km) in 38 minutes and 3 seconds, ending with a safe landing when the fuel ran out. The flight was seen by a number of people, including several invited friends, their father Milton, and neighboring farmers.

Reporters showed up the next day (only their second appearance at the field since May the previous year), but the brothers declined to fly. The long flights convinced the Wrights they had achieved their goal of creating a flying machine of "practical utility" which they could offer to sell.

The only photos of the flights of 1904-1905 were taken by the brothers. (A few photos were damaged in the Great Dayton Flood of 1913, but most survived intact.) In 1904 Ohio beekeeping businessman Amos Root, a technology enthusiast, saw a few flights including the first circle. Articles he wrote for his beekeeping magazine were the only published eyewitness reports of the Huffman Prairie flights, except for the unimpressive early hop local newsmen saw. Root offered a report to Scientific American magazine, but the editor turned it down. As a result, the news was not widely known outside of Ohio, and was often met with skepticism. The Paris edition of the Herald Tribune headlined a 1906 article on the Wrights "FLYERS OR LIARS?"

In years to come Dayton newspapers would proudly celebrate the hometown Wright brothers as national heroes, but the local reporters somehow missed one of the most important stories in history as it was happening a few miles from their doorstep. James M. Cox, publisher at that time of the Dayton Daily News (later governor of Ohio and Democratic presidential nominee in 1920), expressed the attitude of newspapermen—and the public—in those days when he admitted years later, "Frankly, none of us believed it."

A few newspapers published articles about the long flights, but no reporters or photographers had been there. The lack of splashy eyewitness press coverage was a major reason for disbelief in Washington, D.C. and Europe and in journals like Scientific American, whose editors doubted the "alleged experiments" and asked how U.S. newspapers, "alert as they are, allowed these sensational performances to escape their notice."

The Wright brothers were certainly complicit in the lack of attention they received. Fearful of competitors stealing their ideas, and still without a patent, they flew on only one more day after October 5. From then on, they refused to fly anywhere unless they had a firm contract to sell their aircraft. They wrote to the U.S. government, then to Britain, France and Germany with an offer to sell a flying machine, but were rebuffed because they insisted on a signed contract before giving a demonstration. They were unwilling even to show their photographs of the airborne Flyer. The American military, having recently spent $50,000 on the Langley Aerodrome—a product of the nation's foremost scientist—only to see it plunge twice into the Potomac River "like a handful of mortar," was particularly unreceptive to the claims of two unknown bicycle makers from Ohio. Thus, doubted or scorned, the Wright brothers continued their work in semi-obscurity, while other aviation pioneers like Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont and American Glenn Curtiss entered the limelight.

Return to Kitty Hawk May 1908

The Wright brothers made no flights at all in 1906 and 1907 while they pursued fitful negotiations with the U.S. and European governments. While grounded they experimented with a pontoon & engine setup on the Miami River in hopes of flying their airplane from the water. These experiments proved unsuccessful. In May 1906 they were finally granted a patent for their flying machine. In 1907 the brothers journeyed to Europe for the first time for face-to-face talks with government bureaucrats and businessmen. Orville joined his brother two months after Wilbur's departure, but first packed a new Model A Flyer in a crate which was shipped to France and left in storage at Le Havre in anticipation of demonstration flights. In early 1908 the Wrights finally signed contracts with a French company and the U.S. Army. In May they went back to Kitty Hawk with their 1905 Flyer to practice for their all-important demonstration flights. They had not been to the camp in four and a half years and had to rebuild their two sheds, which had been badly damaged by weather and scavengers; the 1902 glider was in a hopeless state of disrepair.

Their American and French contracts required them to be able to carry a passenger. They modified the 1905 Flyer by installing two seats and adding upright control levers. After tests with sandbags in the passenger seat, Charlie Furnas, a helper from Dayton, became the first fixed-wing aircraft passenger on a few short flights May 14. For safety, and as a promise to their father, Wilbur and Orville did not fly together. However, several newspaper accounts at the time mistakenly took Orville's flight with Furnas as both brothers flying together. Later that day after flying solo seven minutes, Wilbur suffered his worst crash when, still not well-acquainted with the two control levers, he apparently moved one the wrong way and slammed the Flyer into the sand between 40 and 50 miles an hour. He emerged with only bruises and a cut nose, but the accident ended the practice flights—and the airplane's flying career.

Public showing

The brothers' contracts with the U.S. Army and a French syndicate depended on successful public flight demonstrations that met certain conditions. The brothers had to divide their efforts. Wilbur sailed for Europe; Orville would fly near Washington, D.C.

Facing deep skepticism in the French aeronautical community and outright scorn by some newspapers that called him a "bluffeur", Wilbur began official public demonstrations on August 8, 1908 at the Hunaudières horse racing track near the town of Le Mans, France. His first flight lasted only one minute 45 seconds, but his ability to effortlessly make banking turns and fly a circle amazed and stunned onlookers, including several pioneer French aviators, among them Louis Bleriot. In the following days Wilbur made a series of technically challenging flights including figure-eights, demonstrating his skills as a pilot and the capability of his flying machine, which far surpassed those of all other pilot pioneers.

The French public was thrilled by Wilbur's feats and flocked to the field by the thousands. The Wright brothers catapulted to world fame overnight. Former doubters issued apologies and effusive praise. "L'Aérophile" editor Georges Besançon wrote that the flights "have completely dissipated all doubts. Not one of the former detractors of the Wrights dare question, today, the previous experiments of the men who were truly the first to fly..." Leading French aviation promoter Ernest Archdeacon wrote, "For a long time, the Wright brothers have been accused in Europe of bluff... They are today hallowed in France, and I feel an intense pleasure...to make amends."

On October 7, 1908, Edith Berg, the wife of the brothers' European business agent, became the first American woman airplane passenger when she flew with Wilbur—one of many passengers who rode with him that autumn.

Orville followed his brother's success by demonstrating another nearly identical flyer to the United States Army at Fort Myer, Virginia, starting on September 3, 1908. On September 9, he made the first hour-long flight, lasting 62 minutes and 15 seconds.

On September 17, Army lieutenant Thomas Selfridge rode along as his passenger, serving as an official observer. A few minutes into the flight at an altitude of about 100 feet (30 m), a propeller split and shattered, sending the aircraft out of control. Selfridge suffered a fractured skull in the crash and died that evening in the nearby Army hospital, becoming the first fatality of an airplane crash. Orville was badly injured, suffering a broken left leg and four broken ribs. Twelve years later, after he suffered increasingly severe pains, X-rays revealed the accident had also caused three hip bone fractures and a dislocated hip. The brothers' sister Katharine, a school teacher, rushed from Dayton to Virginia and stayed by Orville's side for the seven weeks of his hospitalization. She helped negotiate a one-year extension of the Army contract. A friend visiting Orville in the hospital asked, "Has it got your nerve?" "Nerve?" repeated Orville, slightly puzzled. "Oh, do you mean will I be afraid to fly again? The only thing I'm afraid of is that I can't get well soon enough to finish those tests next year." Deeply shocked by the accident, Wilbur determined to make even more impressive flight demonstrations; in the ensuing days and weeks he set new records for altitude and duration. In January 1909 Orville and Katharine joined him in France, and for a time they were the three most famous people in the world, sought after by royalty, the rich, reporters and the public. The kings of England, Spain and Italy came to see Wilbur fly.

The Wrights traveled to Pau, in the south of France, where Wilbur made many more public flights, giving rides to a procession of officers, journalists and statesmen—and his sister Katharine on February 15. He trained two French pilots, then transferred the airplane to the French company. In April the Wrights went to Italy where Wilbur assembled another Flyer, giving demonstrations and training more pilots. A cameraman climbed aboard and made the first motion picture from an airplane.

After their return to the U.S., the brothers and Katharine were invited to the White House where President Taft bestowed awards upon them. Dayton followed up with a lavish two-day homecoming celebration. In July 1909 Orville, with Wilbur assisting, completed the proving flights for the U.S. Army, meeting the requirements of a two-seater able to fly with a passenger for an hour at an average of speed of 40 miles an hour (64 km/h) and land undamaged. They sold the aircraft to the Army's Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps for $30,000 (which included a $5,000 bonus for exceeding the speed specification). Wilbur climaxed an extraordinary year in early October when he flew at New York City's Hudson-Fulton celebrations, circling the Statue of Liberty and making a 33-minute flight up and down the Hudson River alongside Manhattan in view of up to one million New Yorkers. These flights solidly established the fame of the Wright brothers in America.

Family flights

On May 25, 1910 back at Huffman Prairie, Orville piloted two unique flights. First, he took off on a six-minute flight with Wilbur as his passenger, the only time the Wright brothers ever flew together. They received permission from their father to make the flight. They had always promised Milton they would never fly together to avoid the chance of a double tragedy and to ensure one brother would remain to continue their experiments. Next, Orville took his 82-year old father on a nearly seven-minute flight, the first and only one of Milton Wright's life. The airplane rose to about 350 feet (107 m) while the elderly Wright called to his son, "Higher, Orville, higher!"

Patent war
See also: The Wright brothers patent war

The Wright brothers wrote their 1903 patent application themselves, but it was rejected. In January 1904 they hired Ohio patent attorney Henry Toulmin, and on May 22, 1906, they were granted U.S. Patent 821393 for a "Flying Machine".

The patent illustrates a non-powered flying machine—namely, the 1902 glider. The patent's importance lies in its claim of a new and useful method of controlling a flying machine, powered or not. The technique of wing-warping is described, but the patent explicitly states that other methods instead of wing-warping could be used for adjusting the outer portions of a machine's wings to different angles on the right and left sides to achieve lateral (roll) control. The concept of varying the angle presented to the air near the wingtips, by any suitable method, is central to the patent. The patent also describes the steerable rear vertical rudder and its innovative use in combination with wing-warping, enabling the airplane to make a coordinated turn, a technique that prevents hazardous adverse yaw, the problem Wilbur had when trying to turn the 1901 glider. Finally, the patent describes the forward elevator, used for ascending and descending.
Lawsuits begin

Attempting to circumvent the patent, Glenn Curtiss and other early aviators devised ailerons to emulate lateral control described in the patent and demonstrated by the Wrights in their public flights. Soon after the historic July 4, 1908 one-kilometer flight by Curtiss in the June Bug, the Wrights warned him not to infringe their patent by profiting from flying or selling aircraft that used ailerons. Curtiss refused to pay license fees to the Wrights and sold an airplane equipped with ailerons to the Aeronautic Society of New York in 1909. The Wrights filed a lawsuit, beginning a years-long legal conflict. They also sued foreign aviators who flew at U.S. exhibitions, including the leading French aviator Louis Paulhan. The Curtiss people derisively suggested that if someone jumped in the air and waved his arms, the Wrights would sue. European companies which bought foreign patents the Wrights had received sued other manufacturers in their countries. Those lawsuits were only partly successful. Despite a pro-Wright ruling in France, legal maneuvering dragged on until the patent expired in 1917. A German court ruled the patent not valid due to prior disclosure in speeches by Wilbur Wright in 1901 and Octave Chanute in 1903. In the U.S. the Wrights made an agreement with the Aero Club of America to license airshows which the Club approved, freeing participating pilots from a legal threat. Promoters of approved shows paid fees to the Wrights. The Wright brothers won their initial case against Curtiss in February 1913, but the decision was appealed.

From 1910 until his death from typhoid fever in 1912, Wilbur took the leading role in the patent struggle, traveling incessantly to consult with lawyers and testify in what he felt was a moral cause, particularly against Curtiss, who was creating a large company to manufacture aircraft. The Wrights' preoccupation with the legal issue stifled their work on new designs, and by 1911 Wright aircraft were considered inferior to those of European makers. Indeed, aviation development in the U.S. was suppressed to such an extent that when the U.S. entered World War I no acceptable American-designed aircraft were available, and U.S. forces were compelled to use French machines. Orville and Katharine Wright believed Curtiss was partly responsible for Wilbur's premature death, which occurred in the wake of his exhausting travels and the stress of the legal battle.

Victory and cooperation

In January 1914, a U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the verdict against the Curtiss company, which continued to avoid penalties through legal tactics. Orville apparently felt vindicated by the decision, and much to the frustration of company executives, he did not push vigorously for further legal action to ensure a manufacturing monopoly. In fact, he was planning to sell the company and departed in 1915. In 1917, with World War I underway, the U.S. government pressured the industry to form a cross-licensing organization, the Manufacturers Aircraft Association, to which member companies paid a blanket fee for the use of aviation patents, including the original and subsequent Wright patents. The Wright-Martin company (successor to the Wright company) and the Curtiss company (which held a number of its own patents) each received a $2 million payment. The "patent war" ended, although side issues lingered in the courts until the 1920s. In a twist of irony, the Wright Aeronautical Corporation (another successor) and the Curtiss Aeroplane company merged in 1929 to form the Curtiss-Wright corporation, which remains in business today producing high-tech components for the aerospace industry.

Friendship ends

The lawsuits damaged the public image of the Wright brothers, who were generally regarded before this as heroes. Critics said the brothers were greedy and unfair and compared their actions unfavorably to European inventors, who worked more openly. Supporters said the brothers were protecting their interests and were justified in expecting fair compensation for the years of work leading to their successful invention. Their ten-year friendship with Octave Chanute, already strained by tension over how much credit, if any, he might deserve for their success, collapsed after he publicly criticized their actions.

In business

The Wright Company was incorporated on November 22, 1909. The brothers sold their patents to the company for $100,000 and also received one-third of the shares in a million dollar stock issue and a 10 percent royalty on every airplane sold. With Wilbur as president and Orville as vice president, the company set up an airplane factory in Dayton and a flying school/test flight field at Huffman Prairie; the headquarters office was in New York City.

In mid-1910 the Wrights changed the design of their airplane, moving the horizontal elevator from the front to the back and adding wheels. It had become apparent by then that a rear elevator would make the airplane easier to control, especially as higher speeds grew more common. This aircraft was designated the "Model B", although the original canard design was never referred to as the "Model A" by the Wrights.

There were not many customers for aircraft, so in the spring of 1910 the Wrights hired and trained a team of salaried exhibition pilots to show off their machines and win prize money for the company—despite Wilbur's disdain for what he called "the mountebank business". The team debuted at the Indianapolis Speedway on June 13. Before the year was over, pilots Ralph Johnstone and Arch Hoxsey died in air show crashes, and in November 1911 the brothers disbanded the team on which nine men had served (four other former team members died in crashes afterward).

The Wright Company transported the first known commercial air cargo on November 7, 1910 by flying two bolts of dress silk 65 miles (105 km) from Dayton to Columbus, Ohio for the Moorehouse-Marten Department Store, which paid a $5,000 fee. Company pilot Phil Parmelee made the flight—which was more an exercise in advertising than a simple delivery—in an hour and six minutes with the cargo strapped in the passenger's seat. The silk was cut into small pieces and sold as souvenirs.

Between 1910 and 1916 the Wright Company flying school at Huffman Prairie trained 115 pilots who were instructed by Orville and his assistants. Several trainees became famous, including Henry "Hap" Arnold, who rose to Five-Star General, commanded U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II, and became first head of the U.S. Air Force; Calbraith Perry Rodgers, who made the first coast-to-coast flight in 1911 (with many stops and crashes) in a Wright Model EX named the "Vin Fiz" after the sponsor's soft drink; and Eddie Stinson, founder of the Stinson Aircraft Company.

Smithsonian feud

Samuel P. Langley, secretary of the Smithsonian Institution from 1887 until his death in 1906, experimented for years with model flying machines and successfully flew unmanned powered model aircraft in 1896 and 1903. Two tests of his manned full-size motor-driven Aerodrome in October and December 1903, however, were complete failures. Nevertheless, the Smithsonian later proudly displayed the Aerodrome in its museum as the first heavier-than-air craft "capable" of manned powered flight, relegating the Wright brothers' invention to secondary status and ironically triggering a decades-long feud with Orville Wright, whose brother had received help from the Smithsonian when beginning his own quest for flight.

The Smithsonian based its claim for the Aerodrome on short test flights Glenn Curtiss and his team made with it in 1914. The Smithsonian allowed Curtiss, in an unsavory alliance, to make major modifications to the craft before attempting to fly it. The Smithsonian hoped to salvage Langley's aeronautical reputation by proving the Aerodrome could fly; Curtiss wanted to prove the same thing to defeat the Wrights' patent lawsuits against him. The tests had no effect on the patent battle, but the Smithsonian made the most of them, honoring the Aerodrome in its museum and publications. The Institution did not reveal the extensive Curtiss modifications, but Orville Wright learned of them from his brother Lorin and a close friend, Griffith Brewer, who both witnessed and photographed some of the tests.

Orville repeatedly objected to misrepresentation of the Aerodrome, but the Smithsonian was unyielding. Orville responded by loaning the restored 1903 Kitty Hawk Flyer to the London Science Museum in 1928, refusing to donate it to the Smithsonian while the Institution "perverted" the history of the flying machine. Subsequently Orville would never see his airplane again as he would die before its return to the United States. Charles Lindbergh attempted to mediate the dispute, to no avail. In 1942, after years of bad publicity, and encouraged by Wright biographer Fred C. Kelly, the Smithsonian finally relented by publishing, for the first time, a list of the Aerodrome modifications and recanting misleading statements it had made about the 1914 tests. Orville then privately requested the British museum to return the Flyer, but the airplane remained in protective storage for the duration of World War II and finally came home after Orville's death.

On November 23, 1948, the executors of Orville's estate signed an agreement for the Smithsonian to purchase the Flyer for one dollar. At the insistence of the executors, the agreement also included strict conditions for display of the airplane.

The agreement reads, in part, "Neither the Smithsonian Institution or its successors, nor any museum or other agency, bureau or facilities administered for the United States of America by the Smithsonian Institution or its successors shall publish or permit to be displayed a statement or label in connection with or in respect of any aircraft model or design of earlier date than the 1903 Wright Aeroplane, claiming in effect that such aircraft was capable of carrying a man under its own power in controlled flight." If this agreement is not fulfilled, the Flyer can be reclaimed by the heir of the Wright brothers. Some aviation buffs, particularly those who promote the legacy of Gustave Whitehead, now accuse the Smithsonian of refusing to investigate claims of earlier flights. After a ceremony in the Smithsonian museum, the Flyer went on public display on December 17, 1948, the 45th anniversary of the only day it was flown successfully.

The Wright brothers' nephew Milton (Lorin's son), who had seen gliders and the Flyer under construction in the bicycle shop when he was a boy, gave a brief speech and formally transferred the airplane to the Smithsonian, which displayed it with the accompanying label:
The original Wright brothers aeroplane

The world's first power-driven heavier-than-air machine in which man made free, controlled, and sustained flight
Invented and built by Wilbur and Orville Wright
Flown by them at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina December 17, 1903
By original scientific research the Wright brothers discovered the principles of human flight
As inventors, builders, and flyers they further developed the aeroplane, taught man to fly, and opened the era of aviation

Last years

Wilbur Wright

Neither brother married. Wilbur once quipped that he did not have time for a wife and an airplane.. He became ill on a trip to Boston in April 1912. After returning to Dayton, he was diagnosed with typhoid fever. He died, age 45, in the Wright family home on May 30. His father Milton wrote about Wilbur in his diary: "A short life, full of consequences. An unfailing intellect, imperturbable temper, great self-reliance and as great modesty, seeing the right clearly, pursuing it steadfastly, he lived and died."

Orville Wright

Orville succeeded to the presidency of the Wright company upon Wilbur's death. Sharing Wilbur's distaste for business but not his brother's executive skills, Orville sold the company in 1915. He, Katharine and their father Milton moved to a mansion, Hawthorn Hill, Oakwood, Ohio, which the newly wealthy family built. Milton died in his sleep in 1917. Orville made his last flight as a pilot in 1918. He retired from business and became an elder statesman of aviation, serving on various official boards and committees, including the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), predecessor agency to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce (ACCA), predecessor to the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA). Katharine married Henry Haskell of Kansas City, a former Oberlin classmate, in 1926, which greatly upset Orville. He refused to attend the wedding or even communicate with her. He finally agreed to see her, apparently at Lorin's insistence, just before she died of pneumonia in 1929.

Orville Wright served NACA for 28 years. In 1930, Orville Wright received the first Daniel Guggenheim Medal established in 1928 by the Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics.

In 1936, Orville Wright was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

On April 19, 1944, the second production Lockheed Constellation, piloted by Howard Hughes and TWA president Jack Frye, flew from Burbank, California to Washington D.C. in 6 hours and 57 minutes. On the return trip, the aircraft stopped at Wright Field to give Orville Wright his last airplane flight, more than 40 years after his historic first flight. He may even have briefly handled the controls. He commented that the wingspan of the Constellation was longer than the distance of his first flight.

Orville died in 1948 after his second heart attack, having lived from the horse-and-buggy age to the dawn of supersonic flight. Both brothers are buried at the family plot at Woodland Cemetery, Dayton, Ohio.

Competing claims

Numerous claims before the Wrights aspire to the title of first powered, manned, controlled, and self-sustaining heavier than air flight, or variations of this classification—see First flying machine for details. Several claims actually were made after the Wrights' first successful flights, and attempt to discount the achievement due to one or more of the following technical reasons: the takeoff rail, the lack of wheels, ground effect, the need for a headwind, and, beginning in 1904, the use of a catapult. Such criticisms are based on the fact that the Wright Flyer did not operate exactly the way people, then and now, expect of fixed-wing aircraft.

The Flyer certainly did not incorporate all the elements and conveniences of a modern airplane, such as wheels. Criticism, however, while faulting the Flyer on the points listed above, often pays less attention to an additional but essential fact: the Flyer, especially by 1905, was the first heavier-than-air, manned, powered, winged machine to fly successfully under full control, using aerodynamic principles developed by the Wright brothers and applied since then on all practical airplanes. That achievement defines the Wright brothers, in the view of many people, as the inventors of the airplane.

The Wright brothers' December 17, 1903 flight is recognized by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, the standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics, as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight".

Ohio/North Carolina rivalry

The U.S. states of Ohio and North Carolina both take credit for the Wright brothers and their world-changing inventions—Ohio because the brothers developed and built their design in Dayton, and North Carolina because Kitty Hawk was the site of the first flight. With a spirit of friendly rivalry, Ohio adopted the slogan "Birthplace of Aviation" (later "Birthplace of Aviation Pioneers", recognizing not only the Wrights, but also John Glenn and Neil Armstrong, both Ohio natives), while North Carolina has adopted the slogan "First In Flight".

Each state features these phrases on their standard-issue state automobile license plates, and both states also included an image of a Wright Flyer on their respective 50 state quarters designs.

The site of the first flights in North Carolina is preserved as Wright Brothers National Memorial, while their Ohio facilities are part of Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park. As the positions of both states can be factually defended, and each played a significant role in the history of flight, neither state truly has an exclusive claim to the Wrights' accomplishment. While speaking at a presentation at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Neil Armstrong joked that there is enough credit for both states: North Carolina provided the right winds and soft landing material and Dayton provided the know-how, resources and engineering.

Astrological portrait of Wilbur Wright (excerpt)

Disclaimer: these short excerpts of astrological charts are computer processed. They are, by no means, of a personal nature. This principle is valid for the 47,846 celebrities included in our database. These texts provide the meanings of planets, or combination of planets, in signs and in houses, as well as the interpretations of planetary dominants in line with modern Western astrology rules. Moreover, since Astrotheme is not a polemic website, no negative aspect which may damage the good reputation of a celebrity is posted here, unlike in the comprehensive astrological portrait.

Introduction

Your Comprehensive Astrological Portrait

Here are some character traits from Wilbur Wright's birth chart. This description is far from being comprehensive but it can shed light on his/her personality, which is still interesting for professional astrologers or astrology lovers.

In a matter of minutes, you can get at your email address your astrological portrait (approximately 32 pages), a much more comprehensive report than this portrait of Wilbur Wright.

N.B.: As this celebrity's birth time is unknown, the chart is drawn for 12:00 PM - the legal time for his/her place of birth; since astrological houses are not taken into account, this astrological profile excerpt is less detailed than those for which the birth time is known.

The dominant planets of Wilbur Wright

When interpreting a natal chart, the best method is to start gradually from general features to specific ones. Thus, there is usually a plan to be followed, from the overall analysis of the chart and its structure, to the description of its different character traits.

In the first part, an overall analysis of the chart enables us to figure out the personality's main features and to emphasize several points that are confirmed or not in the detailed analysis: in any case, those general traits are taken into account. Human personality is an infinitely intricate entity and describing it is a complex task. Claiming to rapidly summarize it is illusory, although it does not mean that it is an impossible challenge. It is essential to read a natal chart several times in order to absorb all its different meanings and to grasp all this complexity. But the exercise is worthwhile.

In brief, a natal chart is composed of ten planets: two luminaries, the Sun and the Moon, three fast-moving or individual planets, Mercury, Venus and Mars, two slow-moving planets, Jupiter and Saturn, and three very slow-moving planets, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Additional secondary elements are: the Lunar Nodes, the Dark Moon or Lilith, Chiron and other minor objects. They are all posited on the Zodiac wheel consisting of twelve signs, from Aries to Pisces, and divided into twelve astrological houses.

The first step is to evaluate the importance of each planet. This is what we call identifying the dominant planets. This process obeys rules that depend on the astrologer's sensitivity and experience but it also has precise and steady bases: thus, we can take into account the parameters of a planet's activity (the number of active aspects a planet forms, the importance of each aspect according to its nature and its exactness), angularity parameters; (proximity to the four angles, Ascendant, Midheaven, Descendant and Imum Coeli or Nadir, all of them being evaluated numerically, according to the kind of angle and the planet-angle distance) and quality parameters (rulership, exaltation, exile and fall). Finally, other criteria such as the rulership of the Ascendant and the Midheaven etc. are important.

These different criteria allow a planet to be highlighted and lead to useful conclusions when interpreting the chart.

The overall chart analysis begins with the observation of three sorts of planetary distributions in the chart: Eastern or Western hemisphere, Northern or Southern hemisphere, and quadrants (North-eastern, North-western, South-eastern and South-western). These three distributions give a general tone in terms of introversion and extraversion, willpower, sociability, and behavioural predispositions.

Then, there are three additional distributions: elements (called triplicity since there are three groups of signs for each one) - Fire, Air, Earth and Water - corresponding to a character typology, modality (or quadruplicity with four groups of signs for each one) - Cardinal, Fixed and Mutable - and polarity (Yin and Yang).

There are three types of dominants: dominant planets, dominant signs and dominant houses. The novice thinks astrology means only "to be Aries" or sometimes, for example, "to be Aries Ascendant Virgo". It is actually far more complex. Although the Sun and the Ascendant alone may reveal a large part of the character - approximately a third or a half of your psychological signature, a person is neither "just the Sun" (called the sign) nor just "the first house" (the Ascendant). Thus, a particular planet's influence may be significantly increased; a particular sign or house may contain a group of planets that will bring nuances and sometimes weaken the role of the Ascendant, of the Sun sign etc.

Lastly, there are two other criteria: accentuations (angular, succedent and cadent) which are a classification of astrological houses and types of decanates that are occupied (each sign is divided into three decanates of ten degrees each). They provide some additional informations.

These general character traits must not be taken literally; they are, somehow, preparing for the chart reading. They allow to understand the second part of the analysis, which is more detailed and precise. It focuses on every area of the personality and provides a synthesis of all the above-mentioned parameters according to sound hierarchical rules.

Warning: when the birth time is unknown, which is the case for Wilbur Wright, a few paragraphs become irrelevant; distributions in hemispheres and quadrants are meaningless, so are dominant houses and houses' accentuations. Therefore, some chapters are removed from this part.

For all paragraphs, the criteria for valuation are calculated without taking into account angles and rulerships of the Ascendant and of the Midheaven. The methodology retains its validity, but it is less precise without a time of birth.

Elements, Modalities and Polarities for Wilbur Wright

The predominance of Water signs indicates high sensitivity and elevation through feelings, Wilbur Wright. Your heart and your emotions are your driving forces, and you can't do anything on Earth if you don't feel a strong affective charge (as a matter of fact, the word "feeling" is essential in your psychology). You need to love in order to understand, and to feel in order to take action, which causes a certain vulnerability which you should fight against.

Wilbur Wright, Fire is dominant in your natal chart and endows you with intuition, energy, courage, self-confidence, and enthusiasm! You are inclined to be passionate, you assert your willpower, you move forward, and come hell or high water, you achieve your dreams and your goals. The relative weakness of this element is the difficulty to step back or a kind of boldness that may prompt you to do foolish things.

Earth qualities are under-represented in your chart, with only 3.93% instead of the average 25%. Deficiency in Earth may indicate that you have no interest in material and concrete values. It is likely that you live too much in your heart or in your mind, or even in your enthusiasm! The fact remains that you may end up in tricky situations, due to your lack of good sense or forethought: material life is unavoidable even if you are rather idealistic, dreamy, or easily content. You must tackle concrete life necessities, for fear of... being forced to cope with them, later, in much more unpleasant ways!

The twelve zodiacal signs are split up into three groups or modes, called quadruplicities, a learned word meaning only that these three groups include four signs. The Cardinal, Fixed and Mutable modes are more or less represented in your natal chart, depending on planets' positions and importance, and on angles in the twelve signs.

Wilbur Wright, the Cardinal mode is dominant here and indicates a predisposition to action, and more exactly, to impulsion and to undertake: you are very keen to implement the plans you have in mind, to get things going and to create them. This is the most important aspect that inspires enthusiasm and adrenalin in you, without which you can grow weary rapidly. You are individualistic (maybe too much?) and assertive. You let others strengthen and improve the constructions which you built with fervour.

The twelve signs are divided into two polarities, called active or passive, or sometimes masculine and feminine, positive and negative, Yang and Yin. This classification corresponds to two quite distinct tonalities, the first one bringing extraversion, action, self-confidence and dynamism, the second one, introversion, reactivity, reflection and caution. None is superior to the other, each group has its own assets and shortcomings. Odd signs - Aries, Gemini, Leo, Libra, Sagittarius and Aquarius - belong to the first group, whereas even signs - Taurus, Cancer, Virgo, Scorpio, Capricorn and Pisces - belong to the second group.

N.B.: this dominant is a minor one. It is not essential that you read its meaning in the beginning. You can get back to them later on, once you have read more important interpretations.

According to the disposition and qualities of your planets and angles, you are rather influenced by Yin energy, the passive polarity, Wilbur Wright: you are quite introverted, imaginative and sometimes discreet, but you are a deep and wise person who is not content with just noisy and flashy things. At times, you doubt but you think that those who don't are a bit... thoughtless. Allow yourself to take more laid-back attitudes and put your reserve aside, because good equilibrium is always healthier.

Each sign contains 30 degrees and can be divided into three equal parts: the decanates. The Tradition indicates that specific meanings can be associated to each of the three decanates. Their sphere of activity is usually limited to the Sun sign, however, it is even more interesting to observe the distribution of all the planets in the chart to get an idea of the respective importance of the three decanates, which can complement the description of the personality.

These meanings must be considered with the greatest caution. Indeed, they are minor characteristics that can only underline other outstanding traits of character.

Traditionally, the first decanate highlights the characteristics of the sign where a planet is located. The two other decanates correspond to sub-dominant planets, depending on the nature of each sign. This system leads to a multiplication of meanings and it is impossible to have a clear understanding: here, we prefer to give only the meaning of one decanate in comparison with the other two, within the birth chart as a whole. Again, the greatest caution is needed with regard to this minor indication as it is not always reliable: it is not essential that you read these texts in the beginning. You can get back to them later on, once you have read more important interpretations

The first decanate, which means the part between 0° and 10° of any zodiacal sign, prevails in your natal chart, Wilbur Wright: this decanate is traditionally linked to vitality and physical constitution, and may indicate that you efficiently express your concrete energy on the material and sensual planes.

Dominants: Planets, Signs and Houses for Wilbur Wright

The issue of dominant planets has existed since the mists of time in astrology: how nice it would be if a person could be described with a few words and one or several planets that would represent their character, without having to analyse such elements as rulerships, angularities, houses, etc!

The ten planets - the Sun throughout Pluto - are a bit like ten characters in a role-play, each one has its own personality, its own way of acting, its own strengths and weaknesses. They actually represent a classification into ten distinct personalities, and astrologers have always tried to associate one or several dominant planets to a natal chart as well as dominant signs and houses.

Indeed, it is quite the same situation with signs and houses. If planets symbolize characters, signs represent hues - the mental, emotional and physical structures of an individual. The sign in which a planet is posited is like a character whose features are modified according to the place where he lives. In a chart, there are usually one, two or three highlighted signs that allow to rapidly describe its owner.

Regarding astrological houses, the principle is even simpler: the twelve houses correspond to twelve fields of life, and planets tenanting any given house increase that house's importance and highlight all relevant life departments: it may be marriage, work, friendship etc.

In your natal chart, Wilbur Wright, the ten main planets are distributed as follows:

The three most important planets in your chart are Venus, Saturn and Sun.

With Venus among your dominant planets, one of your first reflexes is... to please! Your look, your charm, and your seduction are omnipresent elements in your behaviour.

Your approach to things is connected to your heart, and for you, no real communication can flow if your interlocutors exude no sympathy or warmth. Cold and logical reasoning, clear thoughts and good sense are not important to you: if there is no affective bond with your environment, no connection can be established with the Venusian that you are, and nothing happens.

You have a strong artistic side, and you never neglect subjective but clear concepts such as pleasure, beauty, and also sensuality. However, sometimes to the detriment of efficiency, durability, logic, and... detachment.

Saturn is part of your dominant planets: among the facets of your character, you have a grave and serious side, wise and somewhat severe, since your concentration can be powerful, to the detriment of carelessness and friendliness.

You often look austere, but it is only an appearance, a kind of modesty or reserve; however, it is true that the Saturnian, who is fond of time, effort, asceticism, rigour and sobriety, may have popularity issues. Nevertheless, honesty and straightforwardness, reliability, as well as slow, wise and deep mental process, although not very popular and visible qualities, eventually become noticed and appreciated. Saturnians' second part of life is usually easier and more fulfilling.

Like the Jupiterian, your Saturnian facet prompts you to seek the essential, security, and longevity. However, the difference with the former is that you will never give priority to wealth or "the bigger, the better" philosophy for the sake of power. Saturn, like Jupiter, symbolizes social integration, and it is usually considered positive to have a harmonic Jupiter and Saturn in one's chart because of their social adaptation capacities.

Your vulnerability lies in your too serious and austere side, which may lead to unwanted loneliness and affective frustration. This generally does not last because Saturnians often hide deep down a golden heart that ends up revealing itself...

One of the dominant planets in your natal chart is the Sun. He symbolizes will, magnetism, sense of honour and dignity. You are a Solar being, and you often display charismatic and leadership qualities. Your warmth and your persuasive power lead you far away from pettiness. You enjoy thinking big and, consequently, you move forward according to what you decide.

Your Solarian weakness may be related to the sin of pride or to excessive authority. The frontier between pride and vanity is tenuous: be careful not to overstep it and to keep the nobleness of heart that is part of your charm.

In your natal chart, the three most important signs - according to criteria mentioned above - are in decreasing order of strength Aries, Pisces and Cancer. In general, these signs are important because your Ascendant or your Sun is located there. But this is not always the case: there may be a cluster of planets, or a planet may be near an angle other than the Midheaven or Ascendant. It may also be because two or three planets are considered to be very active because they form numerous aspects from these signs.

Thus, you display some of the three signs' characteristics, a bit like a superposition of features on the rest of your chart, and it is all the more so if the sign is emphasized.

Arian blood runs through your veins! You have that enthusiasm, frankness, courage, and fastness which usually make you so likeable in spite of your somewhat rough, naive, or violent side. As a bonus, Aries' gushing fire always gives you the impetus to make a fresh start, should you stumble or undergo life hardship!

Pisces is among your dominant signs and endows your personality with unlimited sources of emotions, dreams, imagination, and sensitivity, to the extent that you literally swim in a cloudy ocean of delightful impressions. These impressions are so intense and overwhelming that you don't really need to take action concretely, to show your dynamism or your willpower, since you already live so intensely with your feelings - you are as keen as a radar, always on the alert! That is why some people may not like your carelessness, and the lack of clarity in your opinions or actions; however they quickly notice your artistic talents, your poetic or artistic side, and your total lack of wickedness. Besides, you feel compassion for people in pain - empathy is one of your great qualities. Thanks to your flexibility, your intuition, and your generosity, you may spend an important part of your life helping others. And if you are creative or if you have well-known artistic talents, everybody will forgive your little flaws: absent-mindedness, lack of energy or of will, too dreamy temperament...

Cancer is one of your dominant signs and endows you with imagination and exceptionally shrewd sensitivity. Although suspicious at first sight - and even at second...- as soon as you get familiar with people and let them win your confidence, your golden heart eventually shows up, despite your discretion and your desire for security that make you return into your shell at the slightest alert! Actually, you are a poet and if you are sometimes blamed for your nostalgia and your laziness, it is because your intense inner life is at full throttle...

After this paragraph about dominant planets, of Wilbur Wright, here are the character traits that you must read more carefully than the previous texts since they are very specific: the texts about dominant planets only give background information about the personality and remain quite general: they emphasize or, on the contrary, mitigate different particularities or facets of a personality. A human being is a complex whole and only bodies of texts can attempt to successfully figure out all the finer points.

Your sensitivity

You are sensitive to beauty, Wilbur Wright, and your emotional reactions are often of an aesthetical order because, even in the appearances, balance and harmony are necessary for your well being. You easily identify with others, you have a talent for emphasizing their best qualities and you solve their problems with tact and diplomacy. You endlessly weigh the pros and the cons and you constantly try to please your interlocutors. In doing so, you may develop a strong dependency because you need their approval too much. It is difficult for you and your entourage to deal with your indecisiveness because it inclines you towards contemplation more than towards creation and you are tempted to procrastinate unless you try to charm others into doing things for you. But as long as harmony prevails... isn't it what matters?

Your intellect and your social life

You enjoy discussing and exchanging ideas. You know how to put forward sharp and provoking comments in order to keep the debate moving ahead. You tend to use words to put yourself in the forefront and you may become a leader. Your exact and swift, dazzling understanding favours a direct approach to problems and helpful decisions. You are inventive, intuitive and you are in a hurry to bring your projects to a successful conclusion. You do not pay attention to details and you prefer to go to the essentials. However, your decision-making process may be too impulsive and may throw you into unconsidered actions; this is the reason why it may be good that you listen to other people's advice, that you do not walk headlong, and later, be forced to reverse back as a result, a situation you do not appreciate too much.

Your affectivity and your seductiveness

In your chart, the Sun is in Aries and Venus, in Pisces. Paradoxical association: the enthusiasm and the spring freshness of the Aries Sun echo the subtlety and the distance of a Piscean Venus. Your aspirations (solar), prompt you to be carried away by your heart impulses and to exchange with spontaneity … but your desires (Venusian) obey different rules that are elusive, and sometimes, irrational. Between the beginning and the end, the frontier is often tenuous and the balance is fragile. Your affective behaviour may seem disconcerting because you can abruptly shift from enthusiasm to renunciation. This is because your senses do not follow your ideals, because your desires do not match the patterns that appeal to you, as sincere as they may be. Your loved one does not necessarily resemble the conceptualized ideal you dream of. Attraction – or repulsion – is based on ineffable impressions that short-lived and sudden impulses cannot erase nor construct. Although you may show a certain naivety, your senses quickly discriminate between the one-night-stand illusory enthusiasm and the essential harmony without which two persons drift apart, sooner or later. Love is not simple! And if it were, indifference would rapidly triumph over the wildest feelings.

Compassion and self-sacrifice: you are fond of this romantic mode and you are willing to express your feelings, the intensity of which is unlimited, Wilbur Wright. With excitement and imagination, you dream your amorous relationships as much as you actually live through them. The line between the concrete world and your huge hopes is so tenuous that you don't know anymore where it is, although your particularly rich sensuality prompts you to experience your feelings concretely. You want to share communion and passion with your partner. The lyrical flights of your feelings break from your heart as waves that you do not attempt to control because they give you a real, almost voluptuous and carnal joy. You give a lot – sometimes too much - without reservation, almost without propriety, totally revealing your vulnerability during your amorous exchanges because you are sure of the quality and the might of your feelings: they are so powerful and overwhelming that you are aware that nothing can resist them.

Your will and your inner motivations

Your natural energy is cut-and-dried. It may prompt you to take the driver’s seat wherever you are. Were it not for the strange feeling of sympathy you arouse, you would seem to be arrogant. Charging ahead is not devoid of drawbacks. Your courage and your restlessness may hurt you and cause you to doubt, all of a sudden. As a consequence, your courage, your honesty, your enthusiasm and your straightforwardness may turn into aggressiveness, rebellion and vulnerability that were never suspected. Fortunately, the level of your dynamism is very high and your instinctive and pugnacious side, your particularly profuse energy will not leave you helpless for too long. The fire in your blood will put you back on the saddle towards new stampedes and conquests, as ambitious and glorious as they are perilous.

Because you are born under this sign, you are courageous, honest, enthusiastic, dynamic, swift, extroverted, straightforward, effusive, warm, impulsive, adventurous, bold, martial, competitive, but you may also be gullible, domineering, self-centered, impatient, foolish, thoughtless, childish, irascible, reckless, primary and a blunderer.

In love, Sir, more often than not, your passions are strong and varied. Far from being roadblocks, obstacles have a stimulating effect. You like quick victories and your love life is a series of conquests and of break-ups, as boredom often puts an end to the initial love that made you move mountains.

Your sexuality is powerful and prevails over feelings. You may marry early or on impulse, but it does not prevent you from having a rich and varied love life. Usually, you have few children.

Your ability to take action

It is difficult to find a more sensitive person than you, Wilbur Wright. You are able to contain your aggressiveness and it may be hard for you to exteriorize your feelings. You are usually passive and you draw your strength from inertia and resistance more than from the will to take action. Your mood is changing, you show little of yourself and you may surprise with your inopportune reactions that come late, when people have forgotten what it was all about. The only area where you express yourself with zeal and where your actions are successful is the area of home or, more symbolically, in the fields where you can achieve security. In other words, you need to feel comfortable before you can move, in concrete matters as well as in sexuality.

Conclusion

This text is only an excerpt from of Wilbur Wright's portrait. We hope that it will arouse your curiosity, and that it will prompt you to deepen your knowledge of astrology, as well as to visit and use the wide range of free applications at www.astrotheme.com.

Astrological studies describe many of the character traits and they sometimes go deeper into the understanding of a personality. Please, always keep in mind that human beings are continuously evolving and that many parts of our psychological structures are likely to be expressed later, after having undergone significant life's experiences. It is advised to read a portrait with hindsight in order to appreciate its astrological content. Under this condition, you will be able to take full advantage of this type of study.

The analysis of an astrological portrait consists in understanding four types of elements which interact with one another: ten planets, twelve zodiacal signs, twelve houses, and what are called aspects between planets (the 11 aspects most commonly used are: conjunction, opposition, square, trine, sextile, quincunx, semi-sextile, sesqui-quadrate, quintile and bi-quintile. The first 5 aspects enumerated are called major aspects).

Planets represent typologies of our human psychology: sensitivity, affectivity, ability to undertake, will-power, mental process, aptitude, and taste for communication etc., all independent character facets are divided here for practical reasons. The twelve signs forming the space where planets move will "colour", so to speak, these typologies with each planet being located in its particular sign. They will then enrich the quality of these typologies, as expressed by the planets. The Zodiac is also divided into twelve astrological houses. This makes sense only if the birth time is known because within a few minutes, the twelve houses (including the 1st one, the Ascendant) change significantly. They correspond to twelve specific spheres of life: external behaviour, material, social and family life, relationship, home, love life, daily work, partnership, etc. Each planet located in any given house will then act according to the meaning of its house, and a second colouration again enriches those active forces that the planets symbolize. Finally, relations will settle among planets, creating a third structure, which completes the planets' basic meanings. A set of ancient rules, which has stood the test of experience over hundreds of years (although astrology is in evolution, only reliable elements are integrated into classical studies), are applied to organize the whole chart into a hierarchy and to allow your personality to be interpreted by texts. The planets usually analysed are the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, which means two luminaries (the Sun and the Moon) and 8 planets, a total of 10 planets. Additional secondary elements may be taken into account, such as asteroids Chiron, Vesta, Pallas, Ceres (especially Chiron, more well-known), the Lunar nodes, the Dark Moon or Lilith, and even other bodies: astrology is a discipline on the move. Astrological studies, including astrological portrait, compatibility of couples, predictive work, and horoscopes evolve and become more accurate or deeper, as time goes by.

Precision: concerning the horoscopes with a known time of birth, according to the Tradition, we consider that a planet near the beginning (called cuspide) of the next house (less than 2 degrees for the Ascendant and the Midheaven, and less than 1 degree for all other houses) belongs to this house: our texts and dominants take this rule into account. You can also choose not to take this shift into account in the form, and also tick the option Koch or Equal houses system instead of Placidus, the default houses system.

Warning: In order to avoid any confusion and any possible controversy, we want to draw your attention upon the fact that this sample of celebrities is very complete and therefore, it also includes undesirable people, since every category is represented: beside artists, musicians, politicians, lawyers, professional soldiers, poets, writers, singers, explorers, scientists, academics, religious figures, saints, philosophers, sages, astrologers, mediums, sportsmen, chess champions, famous victims, historical characters, members of royal families, models, painters, sculptors, and comics authors or other actual celebrities, there are also famous murderers, tyrants and dictators, serial-killers, or other characters whose image is very negative, often rightly so.

Regarding the latter, it must be remembered that even a monster or at least a person who perpetrated odious crimes, has some human qualities, often noticed by his/her close entourage: these excerpts come from computer programmes devoid of polemical intentions and may seem too soft or lenient. The positive side of each personality is deliberately stressed. Negative sides have been erased here - it is not the same in our comprehensive reports on sale - because it could hurt the families of such people. We are hoping that it will not rebound on the victims' side.

Numerology: Birth Path of Wilbur Wright

Testimonies to numerology are found in the most ancient civilizations and show that numerology pre-dates astrology. This discipline considers the name, the surname, and the date of birth, and ascribes a meaning to alphabetic letters according to the numbers which symbolise them.

The path of life, based on the date of birth, provides indications on the kind of destiny which one is meant to experience. It is one of the elements that must reckoned with, along with the expression number, the active number, the intimacy number, the achievement number, the hereditary number, the dominant numbers or the lacking numbers, or also the area of expression, etc.

Your Birth Path:

Your Life Path is influenced by the number 6, Wilbur, and indicates a destiny marked with an intense desire for love, conciliation, and harmony. You feel driven by an ideal of perfection which brings about responsible behaviour and devotion to a group, a family, or a homeland... At times, your thirst for balance prompts you to adopt intransigent, even tyrannical attitudes, which is the other side of the coin for your constant concern for equity and justice which is sometimes disappointed by the blunt reality. You undeniably demonstrate devotion to your parents or your spouse, which is a sign that your family life is harmonious. In this field, owing to your sense of duty, you are a reliable person. Your balance depends on a harmonious life and on your capacity to make the good choices. It is on these conditions that your qualities can fully bloom: creativity, altruism, personal radiance...

N. B.: when the birth time is unknown, (12:00 PM (unknown)), these portrait excerpts do not take into account the parameters derived from the time, which means, the domification (Ascendant, astrological houses, etc.). Nonetheless, these analyses remain accurate in any case. Regarding the sources of the birth data in our possession, kindly note that the pages we publish constitute a starting point for more detailed research, even though they seem useful to us. When the sources are contradictory, which occurs rarely, after having analysed them, we choose the most reliable one. Sometimes, we publish a birth date just because it is made available, but we do not claim that is it the best one, by no means.

Horary Astrology: your Question on Romance
Aries · Taurus · Gemini · Cancer · Leo · Virgo · Libra · Scorpio · Sagittarius · Capricorn · Aquarius · Pisces

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